THE THEORY OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE INTELLIGENCE OF JANA PIAZHE
As a result of mastering this topic, the student must:
• the main stages of the development of intelligence according to J. Piaget;
• the stage of development of the drawing by J. Piaget;
• the main phenomena described in the works of J. Piaget;
be able to
• determine the stage of intellectual development, on which the child is, according to J. Piaget;
• Analyze experimental data from the position of supporters and critics of the theory of J. Piaget;
• The skills of analyzing the practical application of J. Piaget's theory in education.
An Introduction to the Theory of Intelligence Development by Jean Piaget
Swiss scientist J. Piaget developed a theory that remains very popular today. He viewed child development as the formation of a special mechanism by which a child can adapt to the surrounding reality. Piaget called this mechanism the intellect. Usually in the tests for intelligence allocate a section such as knowledge or awareness. At the same time, knowledge is understood as information possessing a certain constancy. The specificity of Piaget's approach is that he considered intellect (including knowledge) as an action , i.e. as what moves, is in a constant process of change. It is enough to give an example of how a scientist understands perception. From a position of common sense, perception is an imprint of the image of an object in the mind of a person. This imprint occurs whenever a person opens his eyes. From the point of view of Piaget, the visual image of an object is not an imprint, but a way of viewing an object by a person. This method does not occur immediately, but gradually develops as the child develops. Therefore, the preschooler sees objects differently than the adult. (Very often adults do not understand this and think that it is enough for a child to show something, and he will see it the same way.) Similarly, any other knowledge is not a frozen picture but a process.
Child's intelligence develops over a long period of time. The reason for the development of intelligence is to improve the mechanisms of adaptation. According to J. Piaget, adaptation is a state of equilibrium between the organism and the environment. For example, if a child wants to get a new toy, but does not get it, he is not yet in a state of equilibrium. When a toy falls into the hands of a child, it reaches equilibrium. In a more mature age, equilibrium is achieved when, for example, the student decides the arithmetical task posed to him.
Since Piaget's theory deals with adaptation mechanisms, it should be borne in mind that every mechanism is made from something. As the units from which the intellect is built, J. Piaget singled out the action, or rather the scheme of action. The newborn already has ready-made schemes that provide a primary adaptation to the environment. Such schemes are schemes of breathing, sucking, sight, etc. The peculiarity of the scheme is that it has a tendency to repeat, i.e. every scheme, according to Piaget, bears in itself a motive. In addition, the scheme has two properties: assimilation and accommodation.
Assimilation is manifested in the fact that a child can suck not only a bottle of milk, but also the edge of the pillow, thus the sucking scheme is capable of transferring to different objects. Simultaneously, the scheme changes, because sucking a bottle of milk differs from sucking the edge of the pillow, if only in that in the first case it receives milk, and in the second case it does not. Thus, it becomes possible to split the circuits, i.e. accommodation. The sucking scheme begins to split into a sucking pattern for a bottle of milk and a sucking scheme for the edge of the pillow. From these examples it is seen how thanks to the properties of assimilation and accommodation, one innate scheme begins to turn into a number of other schemes. Such transformations organize the child's knowledge system, since not only a bottle of milk begins to exist for it, but the edge of the pillow, its own fingers, etc. Such schemes just represent the material on the basis of which the child's intelligence is built.
Analyzing the work of the scheme, one can see that the main factors that determine children's development are, on the one hand, heredity, and on the other hand, the environment with which the innate scheme interacts.