The tragedy of the world is Psychoanalysis. Modern deep psychology

The Tragedy of the World

The life of the world is dramatic, full of tragedy. In it there is a confrontation of opposite principles - life and death, good and evil, freedom and slavery. One of the first in European philosophy, the supremacy of freedom was proclaimed by the German mystic and philosopher Jacob Boehme (1575-1624). Perhaps for the first time in the history of human thought, wrote NA Berdyaev, Böhme saw that at the basis of being ... lies a baseless freedom, a passionate desire to become nothing, a darkness in which fire and light ... 1 Human being is what we aspire to; a certain ideal that attracts us; the ultimate life and spiritual tension; completeness of self-disclosure. This is how the United States religious philosophers who tried to break through to the mystery of human existence understood the problem of human existence. Prior to the romantics, man was seen mainly as a natural and social creature. Accordingly, its existence was conceived in specific forms, given by history.

Here is a peasant called to get bread, here is an aristocrat leading a secular way of life, here is a monk who has dedicated himself to God. In this sense, human being was identified with what can be said about a person in the social plan. But in fact the individual is generally tight in the available historical space. He easily by imagination takes himself to other cultural worlds, which he himself creates. Renouncing reality, the romantic enters the uncharted zones of his own being. Transforming reality, he comprehends in himself something unique, independent, belonging only to him as a living creature.

According to romantic ideas, only a person is able to discover the infinite worlds. Romantic consciousness, in addition to reproducing the idea of ​​an original individuality, created a fundamentally new idea of ​​the richness and inexhaustibility of the personal world. The image of a person in romanticism is associated with a constant and acute longing for human unfulfillment, incompleteness. That is why the Romantics are so strong motives of world tribulation, the tragedy of existence.

An inquisitive view of other cultural and spiritual worlds undoubtedly contributed to the search for a personal ideal, created fascinating prospects for the growth and elevation of a person as a person. Romantics attracted attention to such important facts of human existence as love, creativity, death. But at the same time they drew attention to the undermining of human existence and revealed such states of the human soul as bitterness, melancholy, grief, sorrow, which are no less significant to a person than, say, joy, jubilation, optimism.

As we see, from the point of view of romantics, human being is inexhaustible in its manifestations, but in the destiny of an individual these manifestations are limited. He may not know the full depth of human passions, not to feel the authenticity of the human vocation, not to know many human states. In order to clarify this idea, let us turn to, for example, the poem of the contemporary United States poet Boris Chichibabin, whose works often have existential notes:

Do not give me an easy share, In the way of a friend, sleep in the night, Burn the calluses of the palm, Lose the heart to the losses.

As long as evil time lasts, Let me be a beast and have no property. Let it suffocate in the wild heat, Merry zamyatyu to torment

And separate me from the mean ones, And give me bitterness in love, And in the hour appointed for the feat, Forgiven Bless ...

At first glance, the poet does not understand why he calls on his head for various troubles. Why accustom the heart to loss? Why suffocate in the wild heat? Why should you suffer from insomnia? But Chichibabin sings not the delight of pain. He tries to express in poetry a philosophical idea, which consists in the following. In order to break through to your human being, you need the utmost tension, there are no easy ways to it, an easy share. Only in trials, in a painful confrontation with life's difficulties, can a person realize the full depth of his existence. That's why the philosophers needed the phrase "human being" as the most generalized expression of human capabilities.

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