Using everyday psychology, art, irrational psychology in the training course
Everyday psychological knowledge
Everyday psychological knowledge accumulates and is used by a person in everyday life. As a rule, they are very specific and are formed in the process of human life as a result of observations, introspection and reflection. Their reliability is verified in personal experience. In essence, everyday psychology is a generalization of everyday psychological knowledge of a person.
The source of everyday psychology is not only the person's own experience , according to the experience of other people. Finding confirmation in the experience of other people, knowledge of this kind is recorded in oral folk art in the form of proverbs and sayings. An important criterion for the truth of the knowledge of everyday psychology is their plausibility.
Do not believe in traditions just because they have come down to us from antiquity. "
Do not believe the writings of the sages simply because they were written by the sages. "
Do not believe the conclusions made from hasty conclusions, just because you made them. "
Do not Believe Only the Naked Authority of Your Teachers and Teachers. "
People exchange such knowledge with each other, pass them from generation to generation throughout human history. The content of everyday psychology is embodied in folk rituals, traditions, beliefs, proverbs and sayings, in aphorisms of folk wisdom, in fairy tales and songs. This knowledge is passed from mouth to mouth, recorded, reflect the centuries-old worldly experience. Many proverbs and sayings have direct or indirect psychological content: "In the quiet pool the devils are found"; Gently steklet, yes hard to sleep & quot ;; "The frightened crow and the bush are afraid";
"Praise and honor, and glory and fool love"; "Seven times measure - cut once"; "Repetition - the mother of the doctrine"; and others
A rich psychological experience is accumulated in fairy tales. In many of them the same heroes act: Ivanushka the fool, the beautiful princess, Baba-yaga, Kashchei Immortal - in fairy tales; Bear, Wolf, Fox, Hare - in fairy tales about animals. Fairy-tale characters often personify certain psychological types and characters of people encountered in life.
Writers collect many everyday observations and reflect them in works of art or in collections of moral aphorisms. Widely known collections of aphorisms, which were at one time M. Montaigne, F. La Rochefoucauld, J. Labriere.The everyday observations of outstanding people because of their wisdom and ability to generalize are of great value, therefore books with aphorisms of the classics are of great interest. Dale Carnegie in his time generalized the experience of life observations and reflections of famous people about the mysteries of human communication. As a result, the popular book "How to Acquire Friends and Influence People" appeared. Such books are written in an entertaining way, they contain many examples that give clarity. It was the bright illustrations and life situations that made Carnegie's books so attractive.
Features of knowledge in the field of everyday psychology are concreteness and practicality, making this knowledge very attractive for use in teaching psychology. Everyday psychology always characterizes the behavior, thoughts and feelings of people in some specific, albeit typical situations. Sometimes this knowledge can reach a certain level of generalization and be expressed in proverbs: "Neither eternal joy nor sorrow infinite"; On angry water carry. " and others. Proverbs often contain practical advice: "Do not despair of need, in happiness do not weaken"; "After fist fists do not wave and others
Knowledge in the field of everyday psychology is characterized by the availability of presentation and visibility, which again attracts teachers. The clarity and simplicity of presentation, the abundance of specific, figurative examples make them convincing for other people. In proverbs this is often achieved through metaphors: "The Melka River, and the steep banks".
Knowledge of everyday psychology is characterized by reliance on life experience and common sense. On the one hand, it will give them extra weight, and on the other - makes them inadequate evidence. Life psychology is sometimes called pre-scientific, emphasizing its shortcomings with respect to scientific psychological knowledge. However, both types of knowledge exist in the society at the same time, and everyday knowledge has its own pre -
property, especially in situations where scientific psychology does not keep up with life. So, for example, teachers, relying on professional experience, mentally build for themselves certain psychological classifications of students, which they need in their daily work. They distinguish, for example, such types of students as "diligent", "closed", "hasty", "inconsiderate", "sluggish", "underdeveloped mentally", "capable". Such classifications are necessary if the teacher does not find in the existing psychological literature a useful typology of the students' personalities. The teacher builds independently on the basis of the analysis of the life practice of observations and uses it, appropriately differentiating the approach to the students.
However, knowledge of the type in question is characterized by inaccuracy of the concepts used. The everyday terms are usually vague and ambiguous. This makes them applicable to a variety of life situations, sometimes quite the opposite.
Everyday psychological knowledge is a good source of illustrations for psychological concepts , contribute to the students better understanding of psychology as an academic discipline. However, they should be used only as illustrations, and not as the basis that constitutes the content of the course. Scientific and practical psychology should be the backbone of teaching activities.
The study of psychology as a science presents difficulties (in contrast, for example, from the natural sciences) from the point of view that students and students begin to study the academic discipline with a certain amount of knowledge gained in everyday life from surrounding people or from personal experience. Our language contains a large number of words denoting mental facts and phenomena. By the way, many of these words are similar to the similar terms of scientific psychology, but less accurate in use. For example, the words sensation & quot ;, sensory experience are much more ambiguous and vague when used in everyday speech than in the field of scientific psychology. This also creates difficulties in the study of scientific psychology.
Knowledge of everyday and scientific psychology can be, in essence, close or contradictory to each other. In this regard, people can either agree with what the teacher says, or disagree. Everyday psychological knowledge is, from one side, the base on which the system of scientific knowledge is built, and on the other hand, one of the barriers that students and students have on the way to understanding scientific and psychological knowledge, reported by the teacher.
Consider another difficulty in the teaching of psychology. When teaching psychological knowledge, especially if this knowledge is specific, people may have the impression that the teacher shares their life experience with them. Such problems often arise, for example, when reading lectures on the psychology of conjugal relationships or the upbringing of children. In connection with this, the teacher should pay special attention to the listeners to the fact that he talks about the knowledge accumulated in scientific and practical psychology, and not in his personal experience.
Owing to the increased interest of people in psychological knowledge, a new sphere of psychology has arisen - the so-called "pop psychology", which is characterized as a simplistic psychology for the mass reader. Psychology has become part of culture, including mass. Typical book titles of this kind are: "Make yourself happy"; How to achieve success in life & quot ;; "The power of the mind"; 22 types of men - choose one & quot ;; & nbsp; Harmful People & quot ;; Do not press me on the psyche. At the same time, it remains unclear to what extent the knowledge in these publications is justified. To a large extent, they are a description of everyday psychological knowledge of people who consider themselves experienced in matters of life psychology. One should not confuse such books with popular scientific psychological knowledge, which, unlike the first, is the popularization of the results of scientific research.The psychology teacher not only can not take such sources as a basis, but must teach students and students to distinguish the knowledge of psychology as a science and practice from pop psychology.
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