The work of a psychologist with teenagers
Peculiarities of the work of a psychologist with adolescents are determined by typical problems for a given age stage.
Teenagers are considered to be the period of development of children from 11 - 12 to 15-16 years. This period is marked by violent psychophysiological development and restructuring of the child's social activity. In understanding the chronological boundaries of age in psychological literature there is no unity. Powerful shifts occurring in all areas of the child's life make this age "transitional" from childhood to adulthood.
The adolescent age is rich in dramatic experiences, difficulties and crises, when stable forms of behavior, character traits, ways of emotional reaction develop, formulate. This is the time of achievements, the rapid growth of knowledge, skills, the formation of "I", the acquisition of a new social position. At the same time, this is the age of loss of a child's worldview, the appearance of a sense of anxiety and psychological discomfort.
Adolescence is often called the period of disproportion in development. At this time, attention to oneself, its physical characteristics increases, reaction to the opinions of others grows, self-esteem and sensitivity increase. Physical deficiencies are often exaggerated.
The most important points of the psycho-physiological development of a teenager are sexual maturation and sexual identification, which are the two lines of a single process of psychosexual development. At the psychophysiological level, the discomfort of adolescents is due to various reasons:
a) the instability of the emotional sphere;
b) features of higher nervous activity;
c) a high level of situational anxiety.
The most informative diagnostic methods for assessing the level of psycho-physiological development of a teenager can be:
• apparatus methods for determining the properties of the nervous system;
• Questionnaire Anamnestic Scheme of the Properties of the Nervous System & quot ;;
• Eysenck questionnaire (option for teenagers);
• Questionnaire of the temperament structure of VM Rusalov (option for children and adolescents);
• questionnaire of CHCT (traits of character and temperament);
• Tepping test (determination of the properties of the nervous system by psychomotor indicators);
• questionnaire of the temperament structure of J. Streliau;
• SAN questionnaire (well-being - activity - mood).
The developmental features of the cognitive abilities of the adolescent are often the cause of difficulties in school education, such as underachievement, inadequate behavior. The success of training largely depends on the motivation of learning, on the personal meaning that has training for a teenager. The basic condition for all learning is the desire to acquire knowledge and change oneself. At the same time, in real school life, one has to face the situation when a teenager does not have a need for education and even actively opposes him.
Perception is an extremely important cognitive process, which is closely related to memory: the features of perception of the material determine the peculiarities of its preservation. Perception learning methods are as follows:
• Compasses (perception of spatial features);
• Clock (perception of spatial features);
• Method of studying the perception of time.
In adolescence, attention is arbitrary: it can be fully organized and controlled by a teenager. Individual attention fluctuations are caused by individual psychosocial features (increased excitability or fatigue, decreased attention after somatic diseases, craniocerebral trauma), and by a decrease in interest in learning activity. Methods of studying attention:
• Correction sample & quot ;;
• red - black tables;
• Münsterberg's method;
• Arranging numbers & quot ;;
• Finding Numbers & quot ;;
• "Finding numbers with a switch."
Among the individual characteristics are individual differences in the functioning of memory. For the success of teaching a teenager the methods of rational memorization, one must know the prevailing type of memory and the individual characteristics of memorization. Methods of studying memory:
• The method of mediated memorization (according to Vygotsky),
• method of pictograms (according to AR Luria);
• Remembering digits & quot ;;
• Remembering Images & quot ;;
• pairwise playback method.
The connection of memory with mental activity, intellectual processes in adolescence acquires an independent significance. As the adolescent develops, the content of his thinking activity changes in the direction of the transition to thinking in terms that more deeply and comprehensively reflect the interrelationships between the phenomena of reality. Methods for studying thinking:
• Veksler's method (children's version);
• STUD (school test of mental development);
• Complex associations & quot ;;
• "Raven's Matrices";
• Analysis of the relationship of concepts & quot ;;
• Identifying common concepts & quot ;;
• Quantitative Relationships & quot ;;
• Intellectual Lability.
It is also necessary to know the features of the speech development of a teenager. Methods for studying speech development are as follows: a methodology for evaluating the productivity of verbal reproduction; the interpretation of proverbs.
Teaching motivation learning methods can be:
• Methodology for studying the motivation for learning;
• motivation for approval - the Marlowe-Crown scale;
• scale of control localization, etc.
The development of his self-awareness becomes the content of the teenager's mental development. One of the most important features characterizing the personality of a teenager is the emergence of the sustainability of self-esteem and the image of "I".
An important content of the adolescent's self-awareness is the image of his physical "I" - the idea of your bodily appearance, comparing and evaluating yourself in terms of standards of masculinity and femininity.
Peculiarities of physical development can cause a decrease in adolescents' self-esteem and self-esteem, can lead to fear of a poor evaluation of others. Disadvantages of appearance (real or imaginary) can be experienced very painfully, down to total rejection of oneself, a steady sense of inferiority.
Teenagers often begin to rely on the opinions of their peers. If younger schoolchildren have increased anxiety when dealing with unfamiliar adults, then teenagers have tensions and anxiety higher in their relationships with parents and peers. The desire to live according to their ideals, the development of such patterns of behavior can lead to clashes of views on the lives of adolescents and their parents, create conflict situations. In connection with the rapid biological development and the desire for independence, adolescents have difficulties in their relationships with their peers.
Stubbornness, negativism, touchiness and aggressiveness of adolescents are often emotional reactions to self-doubt.
Many teenagers have character accentuations - some sharpening of certain personality traits that create a certain vulnerability of the adolescent (neurotic disorders, delinquent behavior, alcoholism and drug addiction).
Methods of studying the characteristics of personality development and its properties:
• a questionnaire by RB Cattell;
• BAL (the Brno personality questionnaire);
• Characteristic questionnaire of K. Leonhard;
• Taylor's anxiety assessment scale;
• Spielberger's anxiety assessment scale;
• Depression scale;
• Unfinished sentences & quot ;;
• Non-existent animal & quot ;;
• The technique of the MDA (house - tree - man)
• method of investigating the level of subjective control;
• methodology for studying self-esteem (according to Budassey, Dembo-Rubinstein, etc.);
• method of studying the level of claims;
• The technique of a typical response to conflict situations (K. Thomas),
• Q-sorting method.
Methods for studying the properties of the micro-group level:
• Sociometry, referentometry, questionnaires of sociability;
• T. Leary's method of diagnosing interpersonal relations;
• D. Kelly's repertory grids;
• GOL (group assessment of personality).
The situation of the development of the adolescent (his biological, psychic, personality - characterological features) involves crises, conflicts, the difficulties of adaptation to the social environment. A teenager who failed to successfully overcome a new stage in the development of his psychosocial development, deviated in his development and behavior from the generally accepted norm, gets the status of "difficult". First of all, this applies to adolescents with antisocial behavior. Risk factors here are physical weakness, features of character development, lack of communication skills, emotional immaturity, unfavorable external social environment.
Specific behavioral reactions occur in adolescents, which constitute a specific adolescent complex.
a) the emancipation reaction, representing the type of behavior by which a teenager tries to get out of the care of adults. The extreme severity of such a reaction is vagrancy;
b) group reaction with peers, which manifests itself in increased interest in communicating with peers, orientation on the development of group norms and values, the formation of their own subculture;
c) the hobby reaction (hobby), which reflects both the fashion trends and the emerging inclinations and interests of the adolescent.
Certain complications arise in the teenager in the process of professional self-determination, a conscious choice of profession. The choice of a profession as a teenager is a multi-stage process of development and decision-making. When choosing a profession, a number of individual styles of solutions are displayed: impulsive; risky; balanced solutions; decisions of a cautious type; inert solutions. Individual styles of decision making are a reflection of both individually - psychological, and personal characteristics of adolescents. Corrections require impulsive and inert solutions.
Methods for studying the process of self-determination - Interest Map and DDO (differential-diagnostic questionnaire EA Klimova).
Consider some of the psychodiagnostic techniques listed above.
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