Theories of Defence Mechanisms and Psycho-Sexual Development


A dialogue on what's inside

  • Chung Dennis

Psychoanalysis's classification is the analysis of a thorough theory pertaining to the procedure of understanding individual nature, motivation, behavior, development and experience through the exploration of the unconscious thoughts of the human mind.

It is governed by rules of understanding whereby each individual is exclusive at beginning, there social press, and other external factors outside and not within the individuals consciousness or control (Unconscious thoughts, emotions and encounters) that impact his or her thoughts and activities, that what occurred during the years as a child and other early on activities echoes and have an impact on the outcome of the average person through the adolescence and older level of life that ongoing experiences in someone's life are always involved and ongoing along the way of development through their lives. (North american Psychoanalytic Relationship 2009 - 2014)

These are the 5 key concept of psychoanalysis that we am focusing on.

First, there may be the idea of personality construction regarding the 3 basic ideas of the Identification, Ego and Super Ego as matching to Sigmund Freud.

The id is the component of a personality that has already been there from delivery. The facet of personality is unconscious and includes the instinct and primitive behaviours. According to Cherry, K. (2014. ), the id is a psychic energy that makes it the primary element of personality. This personality that drives the individual is instinctive and it is by Sexual and Hostility energy.

The ego is a component of personality that is guilty for dealing with what is the reality. Relating to Cherry, K. (2014), the ego produces from the Identification and ensures impulses of the id personality can be expressed possible and appropriate manner in modern culture. This personality is formed by the affects or the exterior term by the method of society, styles and also communal mass media. (Cherry, K. 2014. )

In compliance in her book, Cherry, K. (2014) state governments that the Super EGO personality is divided into two parts, the two parts that have an impact on the results of the superego in the average person is first of all,

The EGO idea, where it pieces the rules and standards once and for all behaviours through the upbringing and communal circles that the average person is in. These behaviours include those which are approved and place by the parents and other higher specialist or social characters. And by so following the rules establish by them it give the person feelings of value and success.

The part of the conscience enter into play whereby it includes information about things that are viewed as unaccepted in conditions of the magnitude portrayed by the parents and by culture. These behaviours and activities will then be followed on by bad outcomes, punishments or guilt and remorse.

The Second key principle is the presence of Defence Mechanism, Defence mechanisms are manners and methods where we act, think and respond using ways to better protect also to distance one selves from a being totally awareness of distressing thoughts, feelings, activities, morals or behaviours. (Grohol, J. M. (2013))

In Grohol, J. M. (2013) article, he suggests that psychologists have grouped defences mechanisms depending on how primitive they are simply. A lot more instinctual they are the more effective they are against in the context of short-term denials, and hence are favoured by many people and among children especially.

The few defence mechanisms are;

Firstly denial, the refusing to simply accept the facts or fact. Therefore by so doing, arguing an nervousness and by provoking stimuli and in its effect, stating it generally does not exist then thus obstructing it out. (Heffner C. L. (2001))

Secondly, repression. It really is a mental effect state that results the given individual to a previous level of development. Reactions varies from crying in a nook when being unfortunate to tossing a temper when thing are not going their way.

The third defence device is intellectualization, it supplies a logical and or rational reason such as relationships to the genuine mindful reason, therefore, theories and logic receive for a specialized medical explanation to the situation of behaviour rather than reality

The forth defence device is projection, it is an extrovert reaction by "throwing" the bad feelings (anger, irritation, sadness) unto another person feeling the contrary, by so doing, making themselves feel better than the affected specific.

The lastly defence system is sublimation. It is the transferring the nervousness of the problem into a far more positive energy and therefore coping with the challenge better. For example as given by Heffner C. L. (2001) diverting ones hostile impulses toward a career as a boxer, learning to be a plastic surgeon because of your prefer to minimize or by weight lifting to release 'ambitious' energy

We then move on to one of Freud's ideas which are the psycho-sexual development of an individual. It explains how personality builds up during youth. However, they are still a controversial theory. It revolves around the 'ID' becoming quite definitely focus on the precise erogenous areas. The psychosexual energy, also called the sex drive, is the travelling force behind behaviour in every person.

It revolves around these 5 stages:

The Oral level that revolves at the time of birth, it revolves around the mouth area of the infant; fixation or constraints in oral might lead to having a passive, gullible, immature, manipulativepersonality. (Sim, M. 1974)

The Anal level revolves around the bowels and bladder eliminating of waste from the body. Being fixated at this stage might lead to being Anal Retentive (Being too planned) or Anal Expulsive (Being too unorganized or reckless)

The Phallic stage starts at the age of six; the average person starts to find the genitals of his or her body. Then and she or he will compare it with their mother or father, whichever gender that poses a menace or competition. For example, the son has been jealous of the daddy for the right of the mom and the child being jealous of the mother for the right of the father.

The Latent stage happens from age group 6 to the stage of puberty. It is the consolidation of the complete lesson learnt and patterns picked up from the prior three stages where in fact the child would then develop his / her own thinking and therefore start consolidating it into his own EGO and thus creating his / her own drive with the influences of the Identification.

The last stage also called the Genital level, stretches across the spam of the whole life of the child as he or she breaks his bond and becomes unbiased from the parents both psychologically and sexually. The kid then squares off with the ID and EGO to come out with a more intellectual part of his thinking process, to relate through camaraderie, love relationship.

Psychoanalysis also emphasises on the role of the unconscious or relating the Corey. G. (2012) a slide of the tongue is also known as the Freudian Slip is a lapse of the mind whereby the unconscious is somehow surfaced without the person actually realising this is from it but to the therapist, they can interpret it as something invisible and recognized to the mind. It is influenced by a number of disciplines, including psychology, sociology, anthropology, literature, and art. (Cherry, K. 2014. )

According to Cherry, K. (2014) Freud divided it to three degrees of mind compared to an glaciers burg. The top or the top part of the iceberg above normal water represents the mindful head. The halves submerge part of the iceberg this is the bridge between your unconscious is also called the preconscious, it may house the anxieties and defence mechanisms as the guardians of the bridge. All of those other submerged area of the iceberg is concealed, unseen under and is known as unconscious, only by going right through or in the lack of the 'Guardians' also called the defence mechanisms and stress and anxiety, only then will the unconscious can surface and become tapped into.

The previous factor is relationships to the childhood development is stating and supporting the theory that whatever happens through the psycho-sexual stage of the child's development. It states that the fixations of the kid when they are young will echo and cause them to construct practices of their own uniqueness matching to what these were fixated with.

Psychoanalysis in modern remedy revolves around the practice of free relationship and the skill of the therapist about how he deciphers and organise by working on and the interpretation of dreams and fantasies. This remedy is also costly and requires a lot of energy as the deriving of the unconscious can't be done at one go. The therapist must also make an effort to identify the level of resistance and the defence device in your client in order to permit the unconscious to be mindful and by so doing making him feel safe without anxieties or criticism that will cause him back into the condition of mental health self-defence. For instance in Newirth, J. (2013) reserve, he is using psychoanalysis in in the means of developmental hermeneutic approach. That is a proven way that modern practitioners are inculcating psychoanalytic therapy to their own way of remedy.

Advantages of psychoanalysis are that through its therapy and examination whereby through the unconscious starts up a windowpane to access the main of the challenge. It can help control and constructs the ID, EGO and Super EGO of the individual. Through the engineering of the individual's personalities, it permit the change of sense as well as the change of the person's behavior and mentality towards everything around him as he is more in charge of his Identification, EGO and Super EGO

However, there are drawbacks of this remedy as it needs a long time to take care of the fellow individual and as it needs many sessions in order to comprehend and analysis the unconscious thoughts of the individual. Thus, having more program which requires more money per visit. In addition, it says that there aren't much therapist trained in the field of classical psychoanalysis as it takes loads of experience in the field to become good as a therapist in interpreting the unconscious thoughts of an person. Though analysing the unconscious and recollections of others, it also contradicts to the memories as the person cannot remember till his child years and in exchange tell fake remembrances to fit the bill. Finally, in this modern day where private information is of a higher level of privacy to us, notify someone that we have no idea of, our recollections, problems and the unconscious who make some of us very unpleasant and more likely never to do the activities that make us reveal or private information and this could hurdle the psychoanalysis therapist.

In conclusion, psychoanalysis remedy is a basis for all psychotherapy as it lays a company and concrete concept in the development of figuring out the roots and the evaluation of your brain and personalities that an individual has. It also lays down the rules that every specific is exclusive and every problem can and must deal with and resolved diversely.

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