- THEORETICAL Concerns OF Home VIOLENCE
Various theories have surfaced as an explanation to domestic assault. These include the mental health, socio-psychological and feminist perspective of learning battering. Some of the theories addresses why men batter while others describe why do women stay in abusive romance? Our main concentration will be on the idea of learned helplessness which accounts for why women stay in their abusive romance.
- PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES
A quantity of psychological theories tackle the causes of family violence. The most popular theories all acknowledge the abuse of ability and control by the abusers, even though role of power and control varies by theoretical orientation. You can find four main theoretical types of family assault: psychoanalytic theories, social ideas, cognitive-behavioural theories and family and systems ideas.
According to Hyde-Nolan, M. E. , Juliao, T. , in their Theoretical Basis of Family Assault, the psychoanalytic theories places focus on the individual's inside processes that create a need to be abusive or even to accept abusive behaviour. Social theories focus on how hostility and assault are learned and moved by one member to other family. Cognitive behaviour theories also emphasise how aggression and assault are learned and moved among individuals, but these ideas further explain why abusive behaviours are sometimes transmitted from era to technology while other times they are not. Finally the family and systems theories give attention to the interactions between family members and the shared responsibility for the occasions that occur within the family system.
Psychological theories of domestic violence have identified causes of battering as resulting from childhood encounters (for e. g. child abuse); personality features (e. g. high dependence on power); personality disturbances (e. g. Paranoid personality disorder), head injury, psychopathology (e. g. antisocial personality trait disorder); or other psychological disorders or problems such as posttraumatic stress disorder or substance abuse.
- SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES
A socio-psychological perspective places the sensation of domestic violence in just a macro style of society where assault is seen as an outgrowth of public factors. It examines the connection of the individual with the social environment. It includes the social-learning theory, learning resource theory, exchange theory, and the conflict theory.
The social-learning theory points out that assault is a learned phenomenon. According to Albert Bandura, positive behaviours can be had through positive role models. Similarly, negative behaviours can be obtained through the modelling of negative behaviours. Sommer (1990) observed that Bandura (1979) applied sociable learning ideas to the acquisition and maintenance of intense habits. Public learning theory have been put on explain the next areas of the development and transmission of domestic assault: "the patterning of violence amidst adult children observing violence in their families of origin" (Kalmuss 1984); "the intergenerational transmission of family aggression" (Cappell and Heiner 1990); "the generalisation of hostility from one romance to some other across time" (Malone et al. 1989); and "the continuation of marital violence in remarriage" (Kalmuss and Seltzer 1986).
The resource theory on the other hand, suggests a romantic relationship between riches and assault. This theory submit that pressure and assault are resources that can be used to resolve issues. For example; your choice making vitality within a given family advances from the worthiness of the resources that each person brings to the relationship. This may signify financial, cultural and organizational resources.
The exchange theory is based on the evidence that a person acts according to something of rewards or punishments. Quite simply, this theory proposes that domestic violence and child maltreatment are aimed by the concept of costs and benefits. Misuse is employed when the rewards are higher than the costs. The private aspect of the family, the reluctance of communal institutions and agencies to intervene and the low risk of other interventions reduce the costs of mistreatment and violence. The most important reward is public control, or electricity.
The control theory is dependant on the notion that many family conflicts result from a person's need to acquire and maintain power and control in a relationship. "The drive underlying the abuser's behavior is the energy and control that he / she is able to exert over other members of the family" [Bostock et al, 2002]. "Threats, force, and violent behaviours are designed to prohibit the less powerful family from engaging in behaviour that the managing individual will not want, while building demand for 'desired' behaviours that occurs" [Goode W. J. , 1971].
- FEMINIST PERSPECTIVE
Feminist theorists see assault toward women as a unique phenomenon that is concealed and dominated by what they refer to as a slim focus on home violence. The main emphasis of the feminist perspective is on the patriarchal dynamics of society; something of male supremacy (Purvis & Hardwood, 2005) which shows man's possession of power. The theory proposes that economic and social procedures operate directly and indirectly to aid a patriarchal sociable order and family composition. Patriarchy is seen as resulting in the devaluation of women and triggers the historical pattern of systematic violence directed against them.
In lines with Bloomquist (1989), violence against women can be seen as the results of patriarchal public constructs which establish the partnership between women and men as you of subordination and domination. The feeling of powerlessness and societies focus on violent imagery escalates the temptation to path to violent control of ladies in order to assert manhood and a sense of personal electricity that is not being accomplished beyond the home.
- THEORY OF LEARNED HELPLESSNESS
The theory of discovered helplessness sheds light on explanations why victims of family assault often choose in which to stay somewhat unpredictable and unpredictable family human relationships. This theory was at first proposed to explain the loss of will that accompanies repeated obstacles to flee from an aversive situation [Seligman MA. , 1975]. Experiencing repeated beatings or other mistreatment may lead a woman to become passive because she feels that nothing at all she will will bring about appositive consequence. This theory of violence is "controversial because a lot of women in a violent romance do maintain a feeling of dignity, learn skills to survive and may even fight back" [Downs D. A. , Fisher J. 2005].
THE Pattern OF VIOLENCE
The theory that domestic violence occurs in a pattern was developed in 1979 by Lenore Walker. The pattern of violence theory explains how and just why the behaviour of somebody who commits domestic violence may change so vividly over time and it also provides an understanding to why the person afflicted by family assault continues to face a violent situation.
- PHASE ONE: THE BUILD-UP PHASE
The first period is seen as a minor battering incidents and emotional abuse over thought or real violations of rules and anticipations of the male partner. The woman responds to regulate the situation calmly or even defend herself for her dignity. Often the woman is convinced her adapting behaviour will act to regulate his violence. This pressure building period time lapse varies greatly from the partnership to relationship.
- PHASE TWO: THE ACUTE BATTERING INCIDENT
In the next phase, no control buttons are left, as the inescapable consequence of ever-increasing stress and anger brings out the most abusive violence. The severe battering incident is distinguished from other kind of situations due to intense release, major destructiveness, extreme negative mental release and because this event cannot be predicted or controlled in any way. The rage is so massive that even the batterer isn't able to deny its presence, nor is the girl able to refuse its effect on her.
- PHASE 3: THE RESPITE (Honeymoon vacation PHASE)
During this phase the man could become very loving and exhibit marvelous kindness. He may also be apologetic and conciliatory offering to get help and guaranteeing never to be violent again. He needs to determine the hook which keeps her from departing him. He will probably continue other forms of mistreatment though such as coercion, economic abuse, or mental abuse in order to maintain his sense of control even in this phase. This phase may embody everything she ever before wanted out of this relationship. He says her he will change, and she dreams that she can perpetuate this third period. This is the time when it's hardest for her to leave.
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