Theories on Causes of Suicidal Behaviour


  1. Definition

Suicide is thought as death brought on by self-directed injurious action with any objective to die as a result of the habit (Cdc. gov, 2014). It really is a dark phrase that often evokes a negative emotional response in most brains and hearts however it has additionally become famous and scandalous because of its rich association with the demise of famous numbers such as Cleopatra, Earnest Hemmingway and many more. Thanks to media, suicide has become the most interesting and sensational form of loss of life. But from this set of the abundant and famous victims, there are thousands more of promising lives that are lost each year to the tragic form of demise. Relating to World Health Company (WHO) a life is lost to the act of suicide every 40 seconds that accounts for more than 800000 each year (Who. int, 2014). It's the second leading reason behind death between individuals aged between 10-24 years of age.

  1. Sample Case of Suicide

Unfortunately, Alviss Kong, aged 22 years also became part of the statistic on Wednesday 13th September 2010 (Thestar. com. my, 2014). He had jumped off from his property on the 14th floor apartment due to his stress over a recent breakup of your 4 a few months old marriage. It became famous due to the fact that he posted the suicide anticipate his Facebook status, a few hours and he taken it out and found sprawled together with a car. Final images of himself looking significantly frustrated with tears streaking down was tagged on Facebook along with a farewell note (HubPages, 2014). Alviss acquired previously attempted suicide once over a similar split up but was unsuccessful. Pouring over some articles related to Alviss, it is obvious the suicidal symptoms where everywhere a long time before he actually been successful in taking his own life. Within the aftermath predictably the question on everyone's mind is, "Why performed he opt to get it done". Thus, in this record we sophisticated on four perspectives which can be applied best to Alviss's tragic decision and untimely fatality. You need to always tolerate in their head that the complexities for suicide often encompasses a varying combination of varied perspectives, never just one single.

Keeping the psychodynamic model as research we know that Alviss was very depressed. His partner was his object when we analyse according to the object relationships theory and he his egos seem to be in a conflicting situation. He seems to have his self-esteem linked to his former girlfriend. In the behavioural perspective it very lucid he has conditioned himself favourably towards the thought of committing suicide as the means to give him an escape way for the conflicting sense he experiencing. Having acquired attempted suicide once, he previously high potential to repeat it again. His negative reinforcements seems have been strengthened further. Going into humanistic perspective it is once more glaring Alviss's desire and goals weren't met in terms of owed and love, esteem and this includes the inability of self-actualization. As for the sociocultural perspective to be discussed in this article, Alviss's suicide seems to fall into the anomic category. Each of the brought up perspectives are talked about further below.

  1. Perspectives on WHAT CAN CAUSE Suicidal Behavior

2. 1 Psychodynamic Perspective

Sigmund Freud is the founder of psychoanalysis and psychodynamic technique towards decrypting mindset. His theories inspired and laid down the foundation of several works including that of Erik Erikson, Carl Jung, and Alfred Adler (McLeod, 2007). Psychodynamic procedure includes mindful, preconscious and unconscious aspects. Freud is convinced that human being thought, emotions, and habits are governed by the unconscious brain. Causes of these manners and mental procedures are due to the deep-rooted problems which reside and operate beyond awareness. Childhood encounters greatly affect the patterns and thoughts of a person. Felitti, et al. , (1998) researched that the unfavorable experiences a kid often encounters are subconscious, physical, or intimate abuse including assault against the mom; or being around family members who were product abusers, mentally unwell or suicidal, or ever imprisoned. Adults with such negative childhood experiences have an increased risk towards enduring depression and attempt suicide. They could have even urges to act out hazardous and dangerous activities. Although such pasts have a home in the unconscious level when they have become up, they may affect the tendencies unconsciously when the adult activities flashback. Thus, this would also bring about panic, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or change of personality.

Object relationships theory is one of the complexities that make clear why people commit suicide. It stresses the interpersonal romantic relationship between people among others especially moms or caregivers and the children (IPI, Object Relations Theory). The inner objects will be the people within the children's preceding life that impact their personality in the foreseeable future. The perceptions of people and about themselves would influence their viewpoint on the earth. Early negative development of children can affect their negative thinking in the future during adulthood as regarding individuals who suffer from disruptive and impulsive aggressive habit. This often can be related to the family's issue, especially between parents when the individual was an evergrowing child. They will become extreme and violent during interaction with others who are collectively called the external items. Later, they steadily become depressed and cause the look at of suicide.

Besides that, Freud is convinced that depression is the leading cause for you to commit suicide (Adams, 2013). The have difficulties between the three components of personality such as Id, Ego, and Superego might start premeditation towards suicide due to the depression. Id is governed by primitive drive that require to satisfied immediately (McLeod, Identification, Ego and Superego, 2008). Children who are still in the Identification stage need care and love. They cannot bear or preserve abuses psychologically especially by parents or caregivers which results in a behavior with hostile reflections. Ego triggers people to reduce their feelings and instincts which in turn forces children to suppress their aggressiveness as they are aware their success will depend on the parents. Superego on the other hand makes people feel bad and guilty when something is weighed against prevailing cultural or moral rules. Thus, children will steadily become depressed, greatly without self-worth or esteem. They would not have the ability to appreciate and be content with the love and caring provided for, by their parents or caregivers. According to Freud, when Ego is unable to withstand the invasion of Superego, the sufferer may probably commit suicide. (Adams, 2013).

2. 2 Behavioral Perspective

Behaviorism is the scientific study of observable action on the idea that tendencies can be induced to learn S-R (Stimulus-Response) units (McLeod, 2007). Regarding to Clarke-Steward and Roy, "Behavioral way is an approach to psychology emphasizing that human behavior is determined mainly with what one has discovered, especially from rewards and punishments. "(2012). It concentrates on how the surroundings can actually influence a person's action. Behaviorists suggested that all habits are learnt and behavior is an result or result in reaction to the stimuli in the environment. You will find two early theories proposed to describe how a person can study from the surroundings. Ivan Pavlov, a Russian physiologist who discovered "Classical Fitness" and B. F. Skinner who launched his theory called "Operant Fitness". Classical fitness is the response occurring automatically to one stimulus and then is used in a new stimulus by pairing both stimuli whereby operant conditioning uses reinforcements to be able to achieve an expected response (Hubpages, 2014). In simpler understanding, stimulus for Classical Fitness is provided prior to the response whereas in Operant Conditioning the stimulus is given following the response.

One of the major reasons leading a person towards suicidal tendencies negative reinforcement. It is a term utilized by B. F. Skinner in his "Operant Fitness" theory. Again, it is seen in escape and avoidance conditioning. This happens when a person or pet learns to create responses that put an end to aversive stimulus (Clarke-Steward and Roy, 2012). For instance, persons who is suffering from depression or any mental health problems, are more likely to try the path of trying suicide because they believe that it is the ultimate way to end their suffering. People who want to commit suicide more often than not have traces of abnormality as it pertains to their patterns of thought, mental reaction and patterns. Some is seen to truly have a history of suicidal look at before they re-attempt suicide. Regarding to Caruso, some people erroneously assume that once someone attempts suicide and fails or is scuttled, he or she will not do it again.

The reality is that he / she will probably try out suicide again at some juncture in the future. Their habit is driven by continuing negative reinforcements that reinforce them to suppress the possible positive response derived previously in the aftermath of any unsuccessful look at. Thus, such people engaged in the work of suicide once more, often successfully.

Therapies are indeed open to correct such behaviours, a person who attempted suicide before should experience two types of therapy; You are operant conditioning also known as behavior adjustment and the other is cognitive action therapy. Behavior changes targets modifying and correcting one's patterns whereas cognitive tendencies therapy tensions on the detachment, from certain thought patterns which drives them into attempting suicide. Behavior therapists would help individuals in developing a new kind of knowledge or experience in order to displace the methods before. This probably eliminates the root cause or at least alleviates their negative emotional leanings.

2. 3 Humanistic Perspective

What is humanistic perspective? Relating to Bernstein (2012), "Humanistic psychology perspective is an approach to mindset that views habit as managed by the decisions that individuals make about their lives based on their perceptions of the world". This is discussed when one sees folks who are cruel in a culture, they will perceptive that all people in the contemporary society are bad and cruel. Thus, they will become more worried and fearful to live in the society. Predicated on this suicide theory, a junior student who's bullied now will think that all the seniors are same and they'll always bully the juniors. This view was formed based on his / her perception on the world. She or he may commit suicide when unable to manage the bullying stress any more. Humanistic perspective helps us to comprehend human nature and its own tendencies. Some psychologists see habit as being determined primarily by each individual who have their own capacity to choose how they would like to take action and think. Humanistic psychologists assume that a person's tendencies is closely linked to their thoughts and self-concept.

The two analysts who contributed to the humanistic point of view are Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers. Abraham Maslow is convinced that folks are determined by the hierarchy of needs. Under this hierarchy of needs, the low needs should be satisfied before the higher ones. Maslow's hierarchy of needs is arranged beginning with physiological needs in the bottom, followed by safeness needs, belongingness and love, esteem needs and the highest is the self-actualization needs. This can be seen when a person will not get love and attention from other spouses, parents and friends which results in them sensing that they are useless as no person care and attention or value them. So this will lead them to end their life as they might think their life does not have any interpretation. While Carl Rogers proposed a theory of self-concept that will lead to self-actualization, he presumed that everyone can achieve their goals and needs that they occur their lives.

According to British Humanist Association (BHA) (2007), humanists assume that fulfilment is vital in a human's life. Humanists feel that it's important to value human's enjoyment and their personal needs. In addition they imagine when such needs or happiness are denied or recinded, various facets your brain get into turmoil with one another causing a person to strongly consider finishing their lives. Humanistic psychologists discovered that some people commit suicide because that they had already formed a notion that their life has no meaning which is absolutely hopeless. Individuals who can't find interpretation in their lives will go through depression which later contributes to suicide as they can not take the pain ever again. Humanistic perspective centers that every individual has the right to make their own decisions. Humanism views that the environment stimulates the self-actualization of a person. It gives rise to responsibility as the average person person must concentrate on interacting and reconciling with existential elements. It gives meaning to their life. People who have strong believe in religion usually understand that suicide is wrong because they think that life and especially loss of life matters should be still left in God's hands. They will usually consider the desires of the folks around their lives and the negative outcomes of committing suicide. That's the reason suicide is known as wrong and a selfish act by many people. BHA (2007) mentioned that the humanistic psychologists presumed people commit suicide because this is the only available option left for them to feel nothing at all and get away the hurting.

There are a few humanistic solutions available for aiding suicidal individuals. A humanistic psychologist use gestalt remedy to someone who attempted suicide as a result of disturbance that they had in their past. Gestalt remedy helps a person to give attention to present rather than on the past. Another remedy which can defeat the suicidal inclination is the family remedy. In this remedy, the family members or relatives will spend time with one another to discuss the problems that is going on within the family such as divorce and so forth. By undergoing this therapy, it will strengthen one's romantic relationship with their families and thus help to solve the many plaguing issues psychologically. The third therapy is the existential therapy which helps a person to find so this means in their life. In addition, it really helps to face the panic which frequently overcomes them. It focuses on their obligations and encourages them to make their own decisions. This can prevent one from making an attempt suicide because this therapy helps a person find interpretation within themselves. Client-centered remedy is also another humanistic methods. Here, the average person can talk to therapist openly and honestly as the therapist does not judge her or him and all informations are held private and private. This helps reduce the burden in their heart. Client-centered therapy assumes that your client holds the key to psychological health insurance and happiness.

In conclusion, humanistic psychologists think that people who is able to control their decisions and their perspectives to the world can prevent them from contemplating suicide.

2. 4 Sociocultural Perspective

Sociocultural theory is a mental health theory that stresses on the significant efforts that contemporary society makes to individual development. Relating to Lev Vygotsky, each function in the child's ethnical development appears twice, first on the communal level, which means between people or interpsychological and next, on the average person level which means inside the child or intrapsychological (1978). Sociocultural theory focuses on the impact of ethnical beliefs and behaviour how instructions take place other than the influence of adult and peers on specific learning (Cherry, 2014).

Emile Durkheim's sociocultural view on suicide argued that suicide probably will depend on what sort of person is mounted on social organizations such as family, spiritual establishments and community and the risk of suicide will be lower if a person intricately belongs to the group (Durkheim, 1897) He also developed a few categories of suicide such as egoistic, altruistic, and anomic suicide. According to him, egoistic suicides are determined by an individual over whom population has less or no impact on his or her live because the person is very detached from the contemporary society. As an example, a retiree who's living by itself might feel like he or she is totally isolated from the contemporary society, friends or family. Altruistic suicides are committed by persons who are so devoted to their modern culture that they deliberately sacrifice their lives because of its assumed well-being. For example, the Jain religious community allows suicide by starvation, also known as 'sallekhana', which was linked to the attainment of 'moksha', a complete independence from the circuit of life and fatality. That is still practiced to this day (Tukol & Institute, 2014). Sati in Hinduism, in which a girl immolates herself on the pyre of her man alternatively than living as a widow (Rajiv Radhakrishnan, 2012). Through her sacrifice, she produces herself and family members from the agonizing cycle of labor and birth and rebirth which is assumed to profit her family (Csuchico. edu, 2014). The final category is anomic suicide which is the outcome from the lack of regulation of the average person by world (Durkheim, 1897). This literally means that some kind of change might have took place in the society where the guidelines or the environment had modified and people feel perplexed or they are simply unclear of how to handle the changes and therefore they finally committed suicide (Spaulding and Simpson, 2014). For example, a country is economically facing an increased inflation, therefore someone who is unemployed in the united states will feel the strain of massive financial burden and feel helpless to handle it. If they fail to fit in or adapt to the changes they opt to commit suicide.

Societies that are experiencing turmoil and turmoil as exemplified by politics assault and long-standing civil battle in Sri Lanka does lead to raised suicide rates. Public changes helped bring through globalization, modernization, monetary commotion, or new politics systems can also lead to such rise in rates. Nov the Soviet Union for example, induced the increased rate of medicine and alcohol maltreatment leading to a number of the highest suicide rates in among Eastern Europe. (Reiss & Dombeck, 2014)

  1. Conclusion

Suicide take huge toll on mankind. This is facts by WHO statement which suggests that suicides yearly signify 1. 3 percent of total disease burden (Who. int, 2014). Despite the alarming quantities and increased efforts for prevention, modern culture has somewhat produced comfortable with suicide. As stated before, the perspectives influencing a person come in a combined bag also to help such afflicted individuals, the strategies required would be multi-pronged. Any therapy or technique if found in isolation from the other methods would not yield the required end result (Mcleod, 2014). Additionally it is very important to rope in the participation of the family and population at large to deal with and reduce suicide rates. In considering Malaysia, we are still very far from supplying prominence to the mental health or status of individuals. The recognition is without the populace plus they is a dearth of trained personnel for dealing with or providing effective therapies. Most of all the stigma mounted on somebody who wishes to get help must be taken out through awareness programs and education.

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