Theory of Sexuality
H. Freud considered sexual attraction to be the most significant for a person. The person who is attracted to, he called a sexual object. For a sexual purpose, Freud meant an action to which a person is attracted. All this allowed Freud to reject everyday ideas about sexuality. After all, common sense identifies the sexual and the genital. The first concept for Freud was broader, because forms of non-genital sexuality are possible. With sexual attraction, there can be various deviations associated with the sexual object and the goal, which is set. Freud with interest studied the book of R. Kraft-Ebbing, which describes the various transformations (perversions) of sexual attraction. So, Freud came to the conclusion that sexual attraction does not have a simple structure, it consists of various components.
Sexual attraction, according to Freud, creates a persistent source of various psychoneurosis. However, of course, not by themselves as such. Mental disorders arise only when a conflict arises between the specific demands of sexual drives and the opposing phenomenon in the form of shame, disgust or moral inhibitions.
In the work "Attraction and their fate" (1915) Freud greatly expanded his own ideas about drives. In his opinion, the drive seeks to achieve satisfaction. The object of attraction is someone who can help a person realize this goal. Freud wrote about two kinds of drives:
1) sexual, aimed at the object;
2) the attraction H, or the drive to self-preservation.
The student is also advised to read the lectures
Freud's introduction to psychoanalysis. Here is a generalization of psychoanalytic views on drives. It is expressed in the following positions:
1. Attraction differs from irritation: it is born from a source of irritation within the body and acts as a constant force.
2. When analyzing the drive, it is important to distinguish between the source, the object and the goal. The source of attraction is the state of excitation that is born in the body. The goal is to realize this excitement. Attraction turns out to be mentally effective on the way from source to goal.
3. Mentally effective attraction is energetically charged.
4. Attitude relation to the goal and the object allows replacing them. There may be other goals and objects, including those that are socially acceptable.
5. Psychoanalysts distinguish between drives detained on the way to the goal and delayed on the way to satisfaction.
6. It is important to distinguish between the drives caused by sexual function and the craving for self-preservation (a feeling of thirst and hunger). Sexual drives can be described as plastic, replaced, detached. Attitudes towards self-preservation can not be postponed. They are more directive.
So, the method of free associations allows the psychoanalyst to explore drives, uncover the mechanism of repression, reveal hidden connotations, provide a psychotherapeutic, therapeutic effect.
This method outlined an approach to the structure of the mental apparatus. The idea of dynamics was born, which determines the relationship between consciousness and the unconscious.
In 1894, Freud published an article "Protective Neuropsychosis", which sets out the basics of his psychological concept. A year later, a joint work with J. Breuer appeared on the mental mechanisms of hysteria. These works were not purely psychotherapeutic reports. They contained theoretical ideas that formed the foundation of psychoanalysis.
H. Freud showed that mental factors affect biological structures. Neuroses just arise not so much from those or other physiological disorders as from various everyday conflicts, life difficulties that are capable of acquiring acute, clinical forms. Freud revealed the meaning of the symptom of hysteria and its role in mental dynamics. Attraction has considerable energy. But this energy is blocked, it can not get a natural realization. In this case, energy finds a roundabout way of expression and emerges in pathological forms.
The significance of these conclusions is enormous. Symptoms were considered in this case not from the physiological point of view, but from the position of expressed expression and symbolization. Neurosis was studied not from a purely medical standpoint. Freud also proposed analyzing neuroses in a completely different coordinate system: the problem of self-expression of the personality was studied. Medicine usually treated the patient as an impersonal symptom carrier. Freud chained attention to a problem that bore a psychological meaning: how a person realizes himself ...