Thinking is the highest form of reflection of objective reality in the mind of a person. This generalization, carried out by means of words, and mediated by the available knowledge is a reflection of reality. The basis of thinking is concepts - generalized knowledge about the essential properties of objects.
Violations of thinking that occur in psychiatric practice, it is difficult to put in some rigid scheme, classification. It can be about the parameters around which various variants of thinking changes that occur in mentally ill groups are grouped.
B. V. Zeigarnik (1969) singled out the following types of pathology of thinking:
- violation of the operating side;
- violation of the dynamics of thinking;
- a violation of the personal component of thinking.
Often in the structure of pathologically altered thinking of patients, more or less complex combinations of different types of disorders are observed.
Violations of the operational side of thinking
When reducing the level of generalization in the judgments of patients, direct perceptions of objects and phenomena dominate; the operation of common characteristics is replaced by the establishment of strictly specific connections between objects.
Violation of the thinking process, designated by B.V. Zeigarnik as a distortion of the process of generalization, is opposite to a decrease in the level of generalization. It manifests itself in the predominance of formal, random associations, the departure from the content side of the task, which causes the patients to base a characteristic sterile philosophizing, called in clinical practice, "dissonance".
Violations of the personal component of thinking
In the clinic of mental illness, there are disturbances in thinking due to personality disorders. These include: diversity of thinking, violation of criticality and self-regulation.
The diversity of thinking lies in the fact that the judgments of patients about some phenomenon occur in different planes. Patients can correctly learn the instruction, generalize the material offered to them; The knowledge that they actualize about subjects can be adequate; they compare objects on the basis of substantial, properties of objects reinforced in the past. At the same time, patients do not perform tasks in the required direction: their judgments take place in different channels. With inconsistent judgments, patients for a period of time are deprived of the opportunity to properly and adequately reason. Patients unite objects during the performance of the same task, then on the basis of the properties of the objects themselves, then on the basis of personal tastes, attitudes. In patients, the inadequacy of their life patterns, the paradox of their motives and emotional reactions were revealed. The behavior of patients deviates from the usual standards. The patient may not care about his loved ones, but he is also concerned about the "food ration" his cat; he can leave his profession and, condemning the family to deprivation, engage in the fact that for days on end he will arrange things in front of the camera's lens, because, in his opinion, "the vision in different angles leads to the expansion of the mental horizon."
"Resonance" - the tendency to empty reasoning, the tendency to unproductive multi-speech reasoning. Variety and resonance find their expression in speech, which acquires the character of "disintegration": in long enough statements of patients there is no reasoning; in the speech of patients it is impossible to detect a particular object of thought; patients are not interested in the attention of the interlocutor, they do not express any relation to other people.
Brad - are not true representations and conclusions, in the error of which pathologically convinced of their correctness of the subject can not be disabused. Has a very diverse content: distinguish between delirium of persecution, poisoning, jealousy, greatness, etc.
Differences of ordinary human delusions from delusions: - delusions always arise on a painful basis (this is always a symptom of the disease);
- a person is fully convinced of the reliability of his erroneous ideas;
- delirium will not yield to any correction, no dissuasion from the side;
- Delusional beliefs are extremely important for the patient, somehow influence his behavior.Obsessions (obsessions) are such experiences when a person has, in addition to his will, fears, drives, actions, doubts (for example, obsessive hand washing, fear of a number of "three" and etc.).
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