Tragic loneliness of a man
Perhaps the animals live without knowing that they will die. But the person knows for sure his frailty. However, for the time being, this is for him an abstract knowledge. But here he is on his deathbed. He dies alone, conscious of his impotence and abandonment. In the life of every person there are such moments when he is captured by a strong, trembling feeling. It can be an experience of immeasurable fear or a strong love interest. At the moment of capturing by passion, the person most clearly expresses something that can be called specifically human.
In the history of philosophy there were thinkers who drew attention to these aspects of human existence. B. Pascal meditated on the tragic loneliness of man in the universe. The Danish philosopher S. Kierkegaard came to the conclusion that apart from the usual "causal" fear of a person is also experiencing a certain awe, fear without visible grounds, which captures all of his being. Similar ideas can be found in F. Nietzsche or F. Dostoyevsky. They are called predecessors of a new philosophical trend - existentialism.
Existentialism (philosophy of existence, Latin - existence) - originated in the XX century. a philosophical direction that emphasizes the uniqueness of human life and the uniqueness of its existence. How did individual philosophical subjects develop into an independent philosophical direction?
It turned out that a person involved in social life, generally deprived of responsibility. But, perhaps, in the depths of human nature there is such a core that does not depend on public institutions, customary standards? It is there, within one's own subjectivity, that man is able to bear responsibility for his life, for his decisions and deeds. In the 1950s. existentialism has become very popular in Germany (Martin Heidegger, Karl Jaspers) and in other countries. But the peak of the heyday of existentialism fell on France after World War II (Jean Paul Sartre, Gabriel Marcel, Albert Camus, Simone de Beauvoir, etc.).
Existentialism is focused on understanding the existence of a person in borderline situations, in determining the authenticity of individual elections in such situations. People, in the opinion of existentialists, are the only judges of their actions. What is the general view of man from existentialists? The life of the world is dramatic. It is full of tragedy. In it there is a confrontation of opposite principles. Man is born in a certain culture and lives by its laws. But the framework of existence exists for him. He dimly senses that there is some more significant mystery than ordinary everyday life. A person feels a longing for his unfulfilledness, incompleteness,
Existentialists believed that reason is little suited to investigate the truth. Man does not think abstractly. He brings misgivings and fears, desires and cares to everything. But reason by its very nature is blind to values, to deep human experiences. Instinctively, man thinks existentially, i.e. through lively, quivering feelings. This is why ordinary scientific cognition must be replaced by an existential one.
Heidegger believed that science always answers the language in which it is asked. This idea was well expressed by the American science fiction writer Robert Sheckley in the story "The Right Question". On a certain planet, which revolves around a certain star, is the Defendant. He knew the nature of things: and why they are, and why they are, and what it all means. The respondent could answer any question, whether he was put correctly. And then the earthlings finally get to the Respondent to ask him their questions.
- Tell me, - asked Lek, settling himself comfortably in the gap between the stars. - Tell me what I am?
- Particularity, - said the Respondent. - Manifestation."Leave it," Leck grunted. "I could have answered better." Now listen. The task for me is to pick up the scarlet and shovel it into a heap. What is the true meaning of this?
- The question is meaningless, - said the Respondent. He knew what purple is and why a heap is intended. But the explanation lurked in a larger explanation. Lek could not put the question correctly.
Lek asked other questions, but the Respondent could not answer them. Lek looked at everything in his own way, he saw only part of the truth and refused to see the rest. How to explain the blind feeling of green?
The defendant did not try. He was not meant for that.
Finally, Lek smiled contemptuously and left, moving swiftly in interstellar space.
Defendant knew. But he needed a correctly formulated question. The defendant pondered this limitation, looking at the stars - not large and not small, but just the right size.
"Right questions ... Those who built the Reporter, you should take this into account," thought the Respondent. They should have given me the freedom to allow me to go beyond the narrow question. "
Eighteen creatures arose in front of the Reporter - they did not come and did not arrive, but simply appeared. Shivering in the cold shine of the stars, they stared dumbfounded at the overwhelming bulk of the Respondent.
- If there is no distance, - one asked, - how can you be in other places?
The defendant knew what the distance was and what other places were, but could not answer the question. That is the essence of the distance, but it is not as it seems to these beings. This is the essence of the places, but it is completely different from their expectations.
- Rephrase the question, - Respondent advised with secret hope.
- Why are we short here, - one asked, - but are there long ones? Why are we thick there, but are they thin? Why are the stars cold?
The defendant knew all this. He understood why the stars were cold, but could not explain it in terms of stars or cold.
- Why, - asked another - is there a Law of eighteen? Why, when eighteen gather, does the nineteenth appear?
But, of course, the answer was part of another, bigger issue, but they did not ask it.
The law of eighteen gave rise to the nineteenth, and all nineteen disappeared.
The defendant continued to quietly mumble himself questions and himself answered them. "
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