Considering just two of the following approaches - transpersonal mindset, parapsychology - point out how they vary, that they overlap, and what they will offer to one another and to the study of exceptional individuals experiences. Critically examine both approaches' drawbacks and benefits to the psychology of EHEs.
Transpersonal psychology studies the mindset of different experiences an individual has of Exceptional individual experiences. Many different encounters can be acquired, ranging from religious to mystical to paranormal. Before the term transpersonal psychology was founded, there have been many other techniques in this area of research. James (1905) was the first person to utilize the term 'transpersonal' and then Analytical mindset that was founded by Carl Jung in 1920's - 1950's. Then came along Psychosynthesis that was founded by Roberto Assagioli. Maslow (1960) released Humanistic mindset and was called to be the 3rd force, 1st drive being behaviourism and 2nd pressure being psychoanalysis. Abraham Maslow and Anthony Sutich began the formation Connection for Humanistic Mindset in 1961. After a while they started to think Humanistic Psychology was missing certain features and in 1967 Maslow, Suitich, Grof, Fadiman all possessed a gathering and agreed after the 4th force called transpersonal mindset and soon after Connection of Transpersonal Mindset was created. Transpersonal mindset can be associated with other research interest such as Mediation, consciousness studies and NDE. Daniels (2005) stated scientific transpersonal mindset must be predicated on 4 phases of observation, theorising, tests and posting which also recognized Tarts 2004 (citied in Shadow, Personal, Spirit) model of 'essential science'. There are many different top features of transpersonal mindset such as it is known as more normative and much more of your applied science rather than a pure research.
When looking at transpersonal mindset, it has taken too much to the field of exceptional human being activities as this merged lots of the older areas of research in this field to make and a new found term which comes with all the felids of research. Transpersonal mindset has grown over the years to conquer the mainstream sciences such as pragmacentrism, cognicentric and ethnocentric views. They have done this by looking at transpersonal encounters and authenticity and their actual worthy of. Wilber (1977) has helped transpersonal mindset become more recognized and approved by his work in this particular topic area. He has attracted data from numerous matter areas such as psychology to sociology by overall making people understand in a rational way about esotericism. Although a drawback was that the info he used was mainly from the reading he had completed over certain time. Also Tarts and Grof's research of consciousness played a major part of building transpersonal psychology and by considering their work it confirmed how important the study was to transpersonal mindset. Tart's research helped us understand d-SoC and d-ASC and Grof's research which founded the new term 'holotropic remedy'.
Over the years transpersonal psychology has come to certain criticism as some branding it 'unscientific' and considered it a 'new age group'. Due to the fact some people top quality it 'new get older' theory; this affected the development and approval of transpersonal psychology in many places such as America. These assumptions were made without looking at the info transpersonal mindset was based upon and without considering the many different analysts who put transpersonal mindset on the map such a Grof etc. These researches thought the prior fields because of this type of area were lacking certain features and created transpersonal mindset. On the other hand Freidman (2002) criticised transpersonal mindset for being 'underdeveloped field of technology' meaning it wasn't considered valid enough when looking at the psychology of exceptional real human experiences. Suggests that it is a mix of transpersonal psychology and most transpersonal studies which mainly consist of unscientific solutions. Another researcher also questioned transpersonal psychology scientific significance and its many different interactions with religion etc. James had been criticised with his relationship with transpersonal mindset stating it lacked knowledge of many different varieties of consciousness such as much different negative methods. Above there are many benefits and disadvantages to the study of exceptional human experience when looking at transpersonal mindset, but overall by doing research upon this topic, it gives more insight to the research of exceptional human encounters even thought there has been a lot of criticism.
Parapsychology is seeks to investigate psychic abilities using technological methods and studies ESP or PSI. A number of tests have been done to try showing this theory. Was initially called 'psychical research' and then Rhine (1935) first formed parapsychology which mainly centered on telepathy, precognition and clairvoyance etc. He used Zener symbols to make a simple card speculating task while using statistical methods in this research. Participants were shown 5 icons and success rate was estimated at 20%. On the other hand there where many negatives to this type of experiment ranging from score recording problems to poor shuffling techniques. He tried to address these mistakes by duplicating the tests again hoping to decrease the bias within the test and also by publishing articles and books.
Parapsychology provides many benefits for the study of mindset of exceptional real human activities as proven by many different experiments as it seeks to establish psychic skills. By looking at Ganzfeld experiment which involves two different people, the first being devote to a Ganzfeld express and the next person shows particular pictures. The next person is informed to send the pictures emotionally to the first person. During the experiment which would typically previous about 30mins is advised to speak aloud considered the experiment. Following the experiment is over, the first person is show 4 images, one being the mark and the other 3 as fakes and asked to identify the target picture using the experiences from the test which they just face and the images being emotionally mailed. Criticisms have been designed for this experiment saying there are strong mythological shortcomings. A disadvantage for this approach which critics have came up with is suggesting researches pick which leads to publish basically meaning parapsychologists decide to put the positive results out to the general public and opt to keep carefully the negative results covered. This has a profound effect on Meta evaluation which combines many reports jointly to get an overall opinion. A written report which was released in 1988 by NAS concluded that there was no scientific justification for the living of parapsychological phenomena. When looking at parapsychology, for most people it sometimes appears farfetched to in order for people to start out believing, strong data needs to show the theories. Most critics of parapsychology suggest that the results obtained are floured in lots of ways such as fraud or bias and are considered not to be valid such as Ray Hyman. Other critics dispute most studies havent shown concrete proof psychic abilities rising the questioning of is parapsychology a science. This is a disadvantage to the mindset of exceptional individuals experiences as many of these above question validity and question the fact that these exceptional individuals experiences happen because so many tests are faulted in a single way or another to establish what they are trying to find out. As you can tell there are multiple positives and negatives to the analysis of exceptional real human experience when looking at parapsychology, but mainly overall by doing research in the way it does, it offers more insight on to the study of exceptional individual experience even thought there has been a whole lot of criticism.
Transpersonal psychology and parapsychology vary in many various ways. First of all they both vary on the fact of what they are trying to discover as transpersonal mindset is looking more at the spiritual area of exceptional real human encounters while parapsychology is looking at the psychic talents of different exceptional individual experiences. Transpersonal psychology sometimes appears as hermeneutic as it more about justification and understanding the research area. Parapsychology sometimes appears as a pure classic knowledge which is widely predicated on different experiments and research which varies with transpersonal mindset which uses different ways of phenomenology and ethnology. Both techniques differ on how they perform the research as transpersonal mindset uses qualitative examination while parapsychology uses quantitative. Parapsychology uses the approach of experimental but overall parapsychology can be an approach which is extensively questioned and criticized in lots of ways. Alternatively transpersonal psychology can be an approach which recognized and proven within its field of research. Paranormal encounters have different aims when talking about transpersonal psychology and parapsychology. Relating to Daniels (2005) who said when looking at transpersonal mindset, paranormal experience are appealing if they can promote transpersonal development but on the other side when looking at parapsychology, paranormal encounters are only appealing if indeed they can objectively record paranormal phenomena. This differs between your two approaches as it is clear that transpersonal psychology are considering the experience as a whole rather than parapsychology who are looking at collecting data to confirm the phenomenon which shows clear differences between methodologies for both techniques. This also supports Allport 1955 (citied in Shadow, Self applied, Nature). who viewed the difference between humanistic and positivistic camps in psychology and concluded that a transpersonal psychologist is more concerned with personal significance while parapsychology is more interested in statistical significance. Also corresponding to Wilber (1997), using his quadrant model it could be recognized that he advised and interpreted that transpersonal psychology is principally an 'interior-individual' strategy. He also said that parapsychology was opposing and was mainly an 'exterior-individual' strategy.
Transpersonal mindset and parapsychology overlap in many ways as well. Daniels (2005) suggested many common regions of interest for transpersonal psychology and parapsychology. For instance he suggested Auras and understated energy systems, Channelling and mediumistic experiences, Encounters of Angels, Encounters of synchronicity, Lucid thinking, Near death experience (NDE), Out of body experience (OOBE), Recent life memories are common areas on interest for both strategies. Also in other studies argue that even though both techniques work in similar interest areas but find out information in several ways, but both aim to help the participant with therapy to help make clear to them there exceptional individuals experience. Also when looking at transpersonal psychologists such as Grof and Tart it's important to realize in addition they had a given curiosity about parapsychology. It has also important to note the actual fact that both techniques could benefit from one another's contribution as this way parapsychologists may find out more about the spiritual side and the experience as a occurrence and transpersonal psychology could see the statistical side of the findings and may lead to producing more research questions over time.
According to some researches transpersonal mindset and parapsychology are two very different approaches however, many leading studies such as Tart 2004 (citied in Shadow, Personal, Spirit). who was one of the few who considered both disciplines to be of great importance when looked at mutually. He said as time passes transpersonal psychology have forget about the scientific sides with their experiment and do not trust parapsychology as they are more enthusiastic about data findings somewhat than considering interpretation of results but Tart argues that both techniques need each other as they both hold benefits which can help to make both their data more valid over time. Both approaches give a lot to the other person for example if parapsychology used ideas from transpersonal psychology this could in the end give them more enlightenment on why they acquired the results they did and same applies to transpersonal psychology. If transpersonal psychology used parapsychology, this might give them proof to support their statements. Transpersonal mindset has offered a lot to study of exceptional individuals encounters as they did a great deal of research in this matter to discover the many different experiences people have and attempted to verify and describe these differing types of experience. Same complements parapsychology, as this approach has attempted to scientifically prove different psychic abilities. Both approaches collectively help advance the task done on learning exceptional human experiences buy using a variety of methods all to get the outcome.
As you can view transpersonal psychology and parapsychology are two main methods when it comes to studying mindset of exceptional human experiences. Both solutions differ on most things but do have a couple of things in keeping with each other. It has additionally shown that if both methods worked along, they can offer each other the idea that either one lacks. Both have played an important part in study of exceptional individuals experience as both uses a variety of methods to discover and prove EHE meaning there may be more research growing daily to aid this topic area.
Daniels, M. (2005). Shadow, Self applied, Spirit: Essays in Transpersonal Mindset. Exeter: Imprint Academic.
Engler, B, . (2008). Personality ideas. Cengage Learning.
Fall, K, A, . Holden, J, M, . Marquis, A, . (2004) Theoretical types of counseling and psychotherapy. Mindset Press.
Grof, S. (2008). Quick history of transpersonal mindset. International Journal or Transpersonal Studies, 27, 46-54.
Jonte-Pace, D, E, . Parsons, W, B, . (2001). Religious beliefs and mindset: mapping the terain: contemporary dialogues future leads. Routledge.
Kimble, G, A, . Boneau, C, A, . Wertheimer, M, . (1996). Portraits of pioneers in psychology: Volume level 2. Routledge.
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