Two Different Theories Of Ram Processing

This assignment will make clear two different theorys of memory processing. Both models are Atkinson and Shiffrins Multi store model and Degrees of control by Craik and Lockhart (1972).

These two studies have been considered in order to provide conclusions, predicated on studies and proof to support these, and have indicated strengths and weaknesses for every single study.

The Multi store model By Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) was the first theory that attempted to explain the storage processes which in turn lead to later psychologists challenging this model of memory.

Each part of the Multi store recollection model checks the capacity of your memory, period, and types of encoding in which we use to store thoughts.

This model points out and demonstrates how we first encode data or information and store it and exactly how it determines whether it goes into our short-term memory or long lasting.

The first level of the model shows how we first encode data or information, which switches into our sensory store which Atkinson and Shiffrin believe this, is an extremely limited duration from anything to milliseconds up to possibly two mere seconds. Our Sensory consciousness makes us alert to sight, smell, sound, touch. The capability of this store is enormous but is not always necessarily taken notice of therefore we might not be able to retrieve these details unless it includes some relevance to us.

The Multi store model then shows that if information is not taken care of most commonly it is "lost" and doesn't make it into our short-term ram, whereas if it been attended to it will stay static in our short term memory.

The next stage of the model then demonstrates that if information is rehearsed or repeated or makes a major value to us it'll then be stored into our long-term memory possibly permanently and is simpler for retrieval.

The Multi store model was the first theory and try to explain how exactly we retain information in our storage. The model focuses on Acoustic encoding (words being repeated) or rehearsed which includes given psychologists a base to develop other theories on memory space and struggle this model.

Although Long-term memory space (Ltm) and short-term ram (Stm) have different ways of encoding and have different capacities, Atkinson and Shiffrins Experiments and theories target mainly on rehearsal, that was questioned in 1972 By Craik and Lockharts model.

Craik and Lockhart thought that rehearsal may well not be needed for a memory to create, as well as when analyzed their theory confirmed that rehearsal didn't work and it is not always enough to copy data or information from short term to long term memory.

Studies that support this theory of rehearsal have been researched by Psychologists Murdock (1962) and Milner(1967) where tests and tests with ram were carried out, and the results signify that through rehearsal of words, they were stored and re called more exact.

Murdock (1962) asked participants to learn and rehearse lists of words and remember them openly. He found that words that made an appearance previous then at the very end of the list were recalled more effectively due to rehearsal.

Those words in the center of the list were often lost or overlooked and were harder to remember because they hadn't experienced the perfect time to be rehearsed. Murdock thought that words which were first and end of the list were more rehearsed by seeking to remember them that they got stored into our long term memory.

Words in the middle of the list didn't have enough time to be rehearsed so frequently were either lost or gone into short term memory. (Web page 157 Longman review guides)

Milner's research also facilitates the multi store model of rehearsal; he looks at patients who'd suffered brain damage, strokes and different illnesses.

Milner uncovered that seniors patients and stroke patients acquired problems with short term recollection and information was often lost by not being able to successfully transfer short-term memory to long term storage area. Patients who endured brain harm or alcoholism tended to get better long-term memory instead of short-term. (Richard Gross pg 250 fourth edition).

These studies both support the Attkinson and Shiffrins theory of memory space by giving proof two stores of storage area long-term and short term.

Although this is the first recollection model it gave future psychologists an insight into how memory space is created and allowed them to develop more advanced, deeper thought in to the subject.

The Multi store model is simplistic and was very influential for Psychologists. The Multi store model explains the process of memory obviously and it only gives encoding, safe-keeping and retrieval. The studies of psychologists do show that we can retrieve information easier (but only from two stores) when its been rehearsed as a result of character of the studies carried out on this theory.

After the Attkinson and shiffrin model, Craik and Lockhart (1972) proposed levels of handling (LOP) as another to the Multi store model.

They looked into deeper degrees of processing of memory space and argued that rehearsal alone could not demonstrate long term memory, and that it is not how many times information is rehearsed, it is how deeply it is processed.

Craik and Lockharts theory clarifies that their are other deeper forms of processing, this is because unrehearsed memorys can be retrieved from long term memory where Attkinson and shiffrins model cannot explain.

Their theory demonstrated that information is encoded deeper when it's more meaningful, and found three techniques of how exactly we encode memory.

Organisation of information was proven to own good recall as information was simpler to retrieve when organised. Distinctiveness or if the storage area was meaning full also would be easier for retrieval if it got a certain impact or affect on the average person.

Another key to memory space was elaboration of any memory was more likely to be stored into long-term storage as its been attended to more deeply.

This theory of deeper control was proved by (Craik and tulvin 1975)

Craik and Tulvin provided candidates to be a part of an experiment where questions were used that can only be clarified with yes or no answers.

The questions were in three categories either Case questions (shallow control) Rhyme questions ( Phonemic handling) and phrase questions ( Semantic handling) questions that needed deeper thought.

An example of a semantic question was "Would the term " rain" fit into the sentence " He kicked a ball into the. . . . . ? ( Richard Gross 2001 pg 256).

The apparent answer is not any, but it the deeper degree of processing in which Craik and Lockhart wanted to analyze in more depth.

The members were then given a recall test of words that were presented in the earlier questions and found members possessed better recall of words which used semantic encoding somewhat than case or shallow.

This experiment confirmed that shallow control recommended it was less inclined to go into long term storage area as it didn't need much thought or attention, whereas Semantic handling intended that if something is more attended to it is more likely to go into our long-term ram store.

Levels of processing is an advanced theory to the Multi store model. It elaborates much deeper into the memory space process by taking into account processing, distinctiveness and organisation which all are considered to play a key role in how exactly we store storage area.

The Degrees of Processing is an extremely descriptive model but not as explanatory or simple as the Multi store model.

However this assignment is more in favour of the Multi store model as from the easier model where has been improved and made more complex by psychologist.

Milner's research of recollection provides true to life proof by using patients with brain destruction and other related illnesses, which enables to give accuracy to the idea and evaluate short term and permanent memory which agrees with Atkinson and Shirrins theory of two stores of ram.

Some psychologists dispute against Degrees of process that if Semantic control produces better recall, then Semantic control must be considered a deeper processing of memory resulting in better recall. Therefore from the circular argument

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