Types and Ideas of Motivation


The past CEO of Standard Electric Jack port Welch, one of the best possible entrepreneur worldwide insurance quotes: "No enterprise, large or small, can be successful over the long run without energized employees who believe in the quest and learn how to achieve it. "(Motivate your employees like Jack port Welch, 2009)


Every specific has their own purpose to stimulate themselves which is not necessarily due to money that is attained or worries that controls the person. It is possible that other reasons motivate them, whether it's an purpose, desire, demand, needs, wishes etc. Inspiration is thought as "a cognitive decision-making that influences your time and effort, persistence and way of voluntary goal-directed habit. "(Bratton et al. , 2007, p. 250). Your time and effort related to this is depends on the capacity and capacity of workers to accomplish their job in an appropriate manner. Another concept of the definition is persistence, this is determined by how the employee pertain the effort for a task in certain time frame. Direction is the 3rd characteristic of drive meaning the ability of the employees and their persistence should lead to beneficial outcomes in the business. Furthermore, persistence and effort is the quantity of the physical and knowledge amount of work done. Whereas, path is the quality of work accomplished.

Types of inspiration:

There are two types of inspiration described by the Organizational Behavior theorists; these kinds are recognized between intrinsic motivators and extrinsic motivators. Intrinsic motivators inspire themselves by fulfilling satisfaction. For example, climbing the high pile of Kilimanjaro in Moshi may be satisfying for an individual without having the idea of getting rewards. Intrinsic motivators prefer identification in their achievements. On the other hand, extrinsic motivators highly like tangible rewards such as salaries, promotions and bonus deals; however, there were various arguments about the explanations of intrinsic and extrinsic motivators especially with the organizations because they are not sure whether it's possible to use the motivators in categories as advised. For example, a worker might get a promotion and receive a much better pay in addition to satisfaction with work. Quite simply, it's possible for the motivators to acquire both characteristics. These attributes are inspired by values of an person, just how in individual thinks and conducts.

Motivation theories:

Theories of work motivation clarify how its nature is presented, in other words, it shows the habit of people and the roles that take location to present the reaction of their behavior. The theories are carried out in two categories; each category is dissimilar than the other as it offers different potential customers. The ideas are classified as follows:-

Content theory first of all concentrates on the desires and needs of employees. Abraham Maslow shows that by producing Maslow's hierarchy of needs individuals or staff get encouraged which also permits them to realize their goal. The lowest level which is physiological and safety needs is the most crucial in the hierarchy since it is a necessity for humans as it isn't possible for them to get the next thing without doing the first needs which is shelter, food and water. The third notion is the cultural needs such as love and passion and positive connections between the worker and others. In this process, the individual realizes the actual and potential that conducts from the needs; therefore, this reason of desire leads to self- actualization needs; in addition, individuals develop their behavior by going to their opportunities of learning, which is the best degree of motivators. In greater detail, the lower needs in the hierarchy do not affect the behavior of people but it motivates them to develop the bigger level; furthermore, it motivates the worker and influences the behavior. Professionals utilize Maslow's hierarchy of needs as a good example for their employees as they ensure that the low needs of the employees are satisfied to have to determination so the managers can provide staff with high level needs that are self- esteem and self applied- actualization. Although self applied- actualization can be an ultimate concept of all, it is exceptional to encounter it and it is quite difficult to build a foundation to develop capabilities as it is a challenging job argued Maslow. (Bratton et al. , 2007).

Alderfer's theory relates to Maslow's hierarchy of needs if it is viewed in a functional and managerial manner. Alderfer (1972) argued that it is more wise to consider Presence, Relatedness and Progress as our needs which is also known as ERG determination theory because the categories can be used at exactly the same time as for Maslow's hierarchy of needs, it is obtained by taking one step at the same time up-wards; in addition to falling to an under level when facing difficulty on the upper level of the hierarchy. (Bratton et al. , 2007).

Process theories are the theories that focus on the way workers make choices, as opposed to content ideas; process theories provide the chance for an employee to consider decisions to obtain his / her goal. In process theories specifically, people get determined for various reasons, one of these is culture; however, process ideas have identified the choice of people as well as the affects of social area whereas Maslow has failed to identify it because the theory is universalistic as the application includes everyone which explains why the explanation between individuals and ethnicities aren't clarified. You will find two main areas that I'd like to give details and make clear about that happen to be as follows:-

Firstly, theory of collateral, it has been aware of inequity or unfairness and that occurs when a employee observes and compares the effort and potential of another employee as well as the dissimilarities in rewards. This creates pressure for the staff which next motivates the worker to decide about how to cope with the issue to create experiencing collateral. Although equity theory was described in this way, Adams (1963, 1965) argued that making equity is by obtaining less of what individuals expect because it is not what they can agree to, as for receiving what is beyond our goals; it is considered as being lucky. (Huczynski et al, 2007)

Second of all is expectancy theory, this theory is targeted along the way people perceive their value in consequence of good final result and performances whether the complete process is positive or negative. In view of the fact that cognitive theories are purpose actions as well as staff being aware of what needs to be accomplished. A disagreement occurred in the 1930's between Edward C. Tolman and his contemporaries views. Tolman argued that "action is directed by the expectations that we have about our tendencies resulting in the success of desired effects"( Huczynski et al, 2007, p. 251) This statement clarifies that to become highly motivated, it is necessary to see creative work from the side of the staff. For example, a staff may possibly want a raise in salary. In this case there are two types of action that could be distinguished from workers. There's a worker that would like a raise and expects it while working hard, this gives an impression to the manager that the staff member would put an effort to be hard working whereby an employee that would such as a increase in salary but feels that putting an attempt to his work is a misuse of time since it would just gratify the administrator, this shows that the worker wouldn't normally be considered a hard staff member, unless the satisfaction of the administrator is valuable to the employee.

Example for inspiration in an group:

For example, if we watch Microsoft dynamics. The business does their finest to satisfy their staff. They motivate their workers by permitting them to manage information that concerns them; not forgetting they keep put up with the staff's performance, vacation trips as well as providing the staff with appropriate payroll. Microsoft dynamics give the Human Resource product the chance to be versatile in working as they make sure that a worker will control to any trial and be able to attain it easily. In addition they provide the employee's with professional development opportunities and following the experience; they are placed with groups that contain potential to have success. (Human resource management software, 2009).

Last week I visited Sultan Qaboos School, which is a non profitable organization. I had formed an interview with a Programmer called Salwa Ali Salim Al- Mazrooey, she clarified that the centre she actually is employed in, which is Centre For Information Systems are facing problems with motivating employees, as they don't hold the sufficient system to create are in the centre. She stated that a lot of employees are not satisfied with employed in that sector and transfer to other departments because they don't provide salaries depending on the performance of the employees, in other words, most workers aren't getting the salary they are entitled to. Another reason that demotivates them is that the leader would not give them full support that they need to achieve their goals; she says that they need to target more on providing opportunities of development for the staff such as training because they do not equalize the staff, quite simply, they may have discrimination between staffs.

Team work:

As for team work, it is a group of individuals that communicate and cooperate by using their effort to attain a certain goal. (Teamwork explanation, 2009). In order to create a higher performance in an organization, it is vital to truly have a team that functions effectively. Furthermore, being in an organization means that every member should speak and contribute their thoughts and by that, they increasingly influence each other.

Importance of team work:

Members must work independently as much as they work in teams; nevertheless, they need to understand how to communicate and be friends with other groups as well. It is necessary to have team work in organizations especially in recent management because they are looking for electricity and a superior quality management which will help with the competitiveness of different organizations. The work is reflected on how the team has performed and also to develop their power and competitiveness it is vital to be creative, have new ideas, taking the opportunity of using the recent technology and be determined and devoted as a team. (Mullins, 2005).

The operations of the group:

The process of groups is the procedure where the habit of the group is built in a continuing basis. Organizational behavior theorists declare that it is important for an organization to go through the phases of development which has been born and grow to be matured and then perish. It is strongly recommended to prioritize maturity of the group before getting to the upper limit performance. Certainly, there will vary types of groupings, some will be able to attain the goal and keep maintaining the high shows for a period, while others continue being ineffective. To build and create a team that is prosperous, it is vital to follow the levels below:-

Firstly is the stage of forming, this is when the group meets for the very first time and has a vague idea about their obligations and roles; Additionally they learn about one another and the guidelines that are instructed for the group with an aim in reaching the jobs given. Homans (1951) explained that a system that is public for instance a group, is within three categories within an environment which consists of "a physical environment, a ethnical environment and a technical environment" (Huczynski et al. , 1991). The group is inflicting by activities, work and connections which reflect behaviour and sentiments within the group individuals and the environment. For instance, if groupings work more regularly with one another, the amount of sentiments rises and when the amount of sentiments are high, a lot more interactive the group gets. Next is storming, it is when the group is a positive situation and even more focused as they have been given tasks they are responsible for. Participants of the group usually have arguments so you can get a certain location in the group, this means that the leader of the group must be aware of the results and will need to have the capability to handle the problem. Thirdly is the level of norming, which is when the people have learned to trust one another, cooperate as well as prepared to listen to the thoughts and opinions of associates in the group. Fourth of most is performing, which is when the group are matured and have the ability to produce top quality of suggestions to achieve goals. Eventually in this level members trust each other and value the grade of work done by every individual in the group. The level of adjourning is when new individuals take place of the old group (Bratton, et al. , 2007).

The theory of Belbin's team role:

Team role is when a person in the group behaves in such manner that contributes and interconnects with all of those other members. In order to be successful in a team, it is necessary to perform the functional assignments which are as follows:-

Plant is a member that has creativeness and wide thoughts. This member can also solve problems related to the duty but there are drawbacks because of this team role, which is disregarding some details and being too busy to be an efficient communicator. Another team role is resource investigator, this team role can be an assertive person filled up with eagerness. They look for opportunities, develop connections and are easy to communicate with; however, they also have weaknesses that may keep their performance low and this is being positive at all times. Once the eagerness fades away, the resource investigator does not have any much desire for the task any longer.

Coordinators will be the ones who've assurance in themselves, these are fully matured which is why they can be fit to be always a chairperson. Their job is to make sure that the goals are clarified, they help in making decisions and are good in delegation; nevertheless, they have the ability to change people and hand over the task to other associates. Shapers will be the ones who like problem. They are dynamic and work better when they are pressured not only is it able to get over problems for the reason that they may be highly encouraged; yet they have the ability to aggravate and irritate others which contributes to upsetting others. Monitor- evaluator's are critical in judging work. These are more to strategic means and favor looking at all options, however they do not have the ability to encourage and motivate others because they use a critical strategy. As for team workers, these are cooperative and able to communicate with the associates; they pay attention to ideas preventing friction, arguments, misunderstanding by keeping the people calm although they can be easily affected. Implementers have self-control and are reliable users, they don't rely on invention and their job is to twist ideas into activities that are sensible. But, the downside of being an implementer is that they are stiff and their act in response is very poor. Completers are the members who critically look for errors to correct and are always manage to meet their deadline at the appointed time. Finally specialists are one minded, fully dedicated to their work although they over look the main concept, they could provide unique information and skills. (Huczynski, et al. 2007)

Belbin talks about that the individuals in the business are given practical assignments that suit their skills and experience but do not agree to a person with personal traits to acquire other duties in the team. The useful role of the person usually corresponds to the associates; furthermore, the assignments of the team are the particular members prefer which is dependant on his personality and not what is expected from him and each individual can probably choose fairly two jobs. Everyone in the team must be evaluated to clarify which role moves well along with his or her personality; additionally, the perfect team is known as to acquire all the nine roles, but does not necessarily mean that every member has to have one role. A member can adopt several role to diminish the amount of members. It's the manager or the leader's job to examine the folks and lead them to right and effective group which includes all nine jobs. (Huczynski, et al. 2007)

Characteristics of an effective work group:

The key to effective work group is to cooperate with all team members, because the group considering collides. Identifying an effective group is through within the characteristics which include a group that acknowledge the rules and values, they need to all have a knowledge which must contain trust within the group, dedication and objectives. It is also important for the individuals within the group to communicate and have the capability to share sentiments as well as disputes. (Mullins, 2005).

Example of team work in an organization:

A sensible implication of team work in an organization, we could shed the light for the Omani Qatari Telecommunication Company; also called Nawras. Nawras has started its functions in middle 2005, since then it's been maintaining a good working environment, filled up with energy and motivation, this all begun with Nawras focusing on getting the right environment for the company to are a team; therefore emphasizing on the importance of team work. Using this strategy, the business has were able to become the comparative if not superior in its operations to its rival Oman Mobile, which has started its businesses since 1975 i. e. twenty years before Nawras even existed. Evidence of Nawras's success, is the fact that it received the Middle eastern honor of Mobile operator for this year, knowing that there are other multinational firms, such as Vodafone and T-mobile in the area, that is quite an achievement, which is majorly due to the fact of emphasizing the importance of a working environment that is determined and works as a team.


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