Types of an indicative basis of action - Pedagogical psychology

Types of the orienting basis of the action

When performing an indicative part of the action, the subject relies on an indicative basis of the action (OOD). It can contain guidelines in a specific or generalized form, in full or in part, can be obtained in ready-made form from another person (teacher) or independently found by the person. Self-reliance can be different: the student can discover the landmarks in the course of blind trial and error or on the basis of a certain method; The latter is either opened by the student himself, or is obtained in the finished form from the teacher.

Varying the DTE on these three characteristics determines its different types. Three main types of DTE were discovered experimentally, they received conditional names - the first, second and third. A fourth type of DTE was also described a little later.

The first type is characterized by an incomplete set of benchmarks in the DTE, they are specific in nature, i.e. are suitable only for the analysis of situations of any one kind and are independently opened by the person on the basis of trial and error.

The second type contains the entire set of landmarks necessary for the correct and reasonable execution of the action. In this case, the subject gets this set in the finished form.

The third type OOD is also characterized by the completeness of the composition of the landmarks, but these landmarks are not particular, but general, suitable for the analysis of a certain class of phenomena. The peculiarity of this type is that the generalized system of orientation is received by the agent in a ready-made form, but for the analysis of a particular phenomenon of a given class, he independently makes up a private DTE, using the generalized DTE and the method of deducing particular reference points from general ones that were given to him.

The fourth type OOD assumes the existence of a complete system of common landmarks, received by the agent in the finished form.

The types of OODs described here were first identified in the course of experimental training. Later Η. F. Talyzin theoretically obtained a complete system of ODC types based on a combination of the above three qualities, each of which has two states - presence or absence (23 = 8). The type 5 was characterized as generalized, incomplete and received in the finished form; The type 6 - as a generalized, incomplete, but compiled by the student; The type 7 - as a specific, complete, compiled by the student; The Eighth type - as a specific, incomplete, received in the finished form. The last type of OOD is actually implemented in traditional training.

Q. Davydov conducted a comparative analysis of the second and third types of DTEs. He showed that the second type provides orientation at the level of the phenomenon, without penetrating into its essence. This forms empirical, not theoretical thinking. Theoretical thinking can be formed only when using the third type of OOD. In this case, knowledge of the essence of phenomena is provided, finding their universal basis, or source, from which a whole variety of phenomena arises and an understanding of how this basis causes the emergence and interconnection of the phenomena of this region. True, with the third type of OOD, the student does not find this universal basis on his own, but gets it in the finished form from the teacher.

The problem of DTE types, however, can not be considered completely solved. Further research can go in the direction of both a more detailed analysis of the types already described, and the identification of additional, new properties of the DTE.

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