Types of organizational structures and their psychological characteristics
The organizational structure is one of the basic elements of the organization, which is defined as the totality of the ways through which the labor process is first divided into separate work tasks, and then coordination is achieved to solve tasks. In fact, the organizational structure determines the distribution of responsibilities and powers within the organization. As a rule, it is displayed in the form of an organizational chart - a graphic scheme, the elements of which are hierarchically ordered organizational units (units, job positions). It is the structure of the organization that largely determines the nature of the relationship between people included in the organization, explains why some organizations respond quickly and efficiently to changes in the external environment, while others do so for a long time and are unproductive.
The linear management structure is the interaction between the leader and the subordinates (Figure 2.1). It is used mainly at lower control stages.
Figure 2.1. Organization Line Structure
Note: P - employees of the department
The advantage of this management structure is to ensure a quick response of employees to management teams.
The disadvantage is that the manager must have all the knowledge necessary to implement the management process.
The linear-staff management structure (Figure 2.2) differs from linear by the presence in it of functional staffs intended for the competent development of management problems and issuing recommendations to the head -
Fig. 2.2. Line-Structure Structure
Note: P-Division employees
lyu. The headquarters include planned, dispatching, economic and other services.
The advantage is the provision of competent advice to the head.
The disadvantage is that the interaction of various functional staffs and the coordination of their activities is carried out only at the level of the manager, and there is a lag in the development of management commands.
The functional management structure (Figure 2.3) assumes the existence of functional managers who, having competence in solving certain kinds of issues, are entitled to issue commands to inferior workers equivalent to the commands of the line manager.
The advantage of a functional management structure is to ensure the rapid issuance of competent teams.
The disadvantage is that it is possible for employees to receive contradictory teams emanating from functional managers, with the inevitable need to harmonize them, including at the level of the head of an organization with such a management structure. Such a management structure is not used in practice anywhere.
The linear-functional control structure (Figure 2.4) is a synthesis of linear and functional
Fig. 2.3. Functional structure
Fig. 2.4. Linear-functional structure
management structures, based on the functional division of powers of managers and the linear subordination of certain professionals (employees) to the relevant functional managers.
The advantage of this structure is that it provides unambiguous and operational guidance for each type of work.
The disadvantage is an increase in the degree of isolation of employees of various functional units and services, the rendering of all questions of their interaction to the level of the head of the organization.
Matrix control structure (MSU) is a structure that combines vertical linear and functional control links with horizontal ones (Figure 2.5).
In LSG, the staff of functional units, while remaining in their composition and subordination, must also follow the instructions of project managers or special staffs, councils, etc., which are formed to manage individual projects and works.
Project managers establish the composition and order of work, and the heads of functional units are responsible for their proper and timely execution.
Project managers are empowered with a range of options ranging from the broadest to the most limited staff functions.
LSGs can be used in individual organizations and management bodies and for systems of organizations and bodies.
MSU preserves the advantages of both linear-functional and project management structures. It is aimed at the mutual coherence of the work of all units of the organization to achieve the objectives of various projects. This makes it easier to coordinate the execution of work on projects.
The LSG creates prerequisites for the most qualified execution of individual functions. The structure has considerable flexibility, as it simplifies the redistribution of personnel to perform priority work.
The main disadvantage of LSG is that during the implementation, relations of double subordination of performers are created. As a result, the control mechanism becomes more complex and there is a danger of emergence of contradictory situations. With LSG, the deficit (or underload) of functional specialists can be found sporadically, which causes the desire to increase the staff of functional units.
The project management structure (CSP) is a structure aimed at ensuring effective management of parallel execution at the enterprise or in the organization of a number of large projects or works (Figure 2.6).
When implementing the CSP, autonomy is obtained for certain sets of units participating in individual projects, led by the leaders of these projects.
Fig. 2.5. Matrix structure
Fig. 2.6. Project structure
The project manager bears full responsibility for its timely and qualitative development and implementation. He is endowed with all the rights of management, subordinate units and does not have subordinate units directly not related to the preparation of the project.
The CSP is clearly focused on the fulfillment of certain tasks. The team working on one project is united by the unity of the goal. When implementing the CSP, the possibility of making controversial decisions on the project and issuing uncoordinated tasks is reduced to zero, prerequisites are created for prompt resolution within the project of emerging problems and issues.
PSU provides increased personal responsibility of managers and executors, formation of conditions for better interaction. The level of requirements for the project manager as a specialist and manager is exceptionally high.
CSPs can be created in a decentralized and centralized form. Their difference lies in the place and subordination of functional and auxiliary units in the management structure of an enterprise or organization.
With a decentralized CSP, they are divided into project units and report to project managers. With a centralized CSP are common to all project units and are subject to the head of the enterprise or organization. This predetermines their advantages and disadvantages.
The main advantage of a decentralized CSP is that a whole set of functional and executive units required for its implementation are included in the set of units that develop a certain project. All powers and rights of management of intellectual, material and labor resources for the project are concentrated in one person - the project manager. Such a structure makes it possible to realize the advantages of the unity of the organization of activity and one-man management.
Product structure of management (ProdSU) - modification of the hierarchical scheme of the management structure (Figure 2.7). Its peculiarity lies in the fact that at the production and service level of the structure of the organization, the functions of the product are separated. This allows you to keep separate records, sales, supply and other operations.
Advantages of ProdSU:
- efficiency of solutions to ensure product quality;
- attracting more competent specialists in the field to the leadership;
Fig. 2.7. & quot; Product & quot; structure
- the creation of a cohesive management and production team;
- efficiency in solving non-standard situations;
- increasing the personal responsibility of all employees.
Disadvantages of the ProdSU:
- the risk of a decline in sales volume;
- difficulty in coordinating the activities of all units.
Features of the organizational structure - a factor that determines which organizational culture will allow the organization to achieve results, what criteria will be used to measure effectiveness, what powers exist for the manager to influence employees, and what relationships employees associate with each other. Thus, it is the organizational structure (the element formed at the very beginning of the organization's life cycle), "dictates" people included in the organization of the model of behavior, interaction, joint decision-making, conflict resolution. In the life of any organization, the time may come when the organizational structure "expires & quot; and is a barrier to organizational development. In this situation, time comes for the most serious organizational innovations - a change in structure.
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