Types of professional interviews
A structured interview is an interview in which the interview is directed solely by the interviewer, according to a predetermined scheme of questions relating to certain psychological aspects of professional activity. At the same time, the specificity of this type of interview involves careful research and development of all significant characteristics of the interviewee.
Benefits of a structured interview.
1. The data obtained is more comparable to each other.
2. It is more reliable, i.e. the results of repeated interviews by other interviewers of one interviewee often coincide.
3. Errors in formulating questions are minimized.
4. There are more opportunities for mathematical processing of results.
5. Can be used by interviewers with little experience and qualifications.
The main drawbacks of structured interviews:
1. The probability of an ambiguous understanding by different people of the wording of questions.
2. Greater degree of formal and formal interviewing, difficulty in establishing contact and understanding.
A structured interview allows you to obtain the following types of information.
1. Professional experience. In which organizations, and in what positions did he work previously, what duties did he perform, what did he like and what did not like in his previous work, what earnings were, why he decided change the place of work, which causes difficulties in work.
2. Education. Which school graduated, what was liked and what did not please in school, which subjects were given easier and which ones were harder, with what results did the education finish, I would like to increase level of education or not.
3. Social and economic status and marital status. Family composition, education and profession of family members, financial situation.
4. Ability to social adaptation. Relationships with other people, interests of the husband (wife), hobbies and hobbies, health.
5. Personal qualities. General maturity of the person, emotional stability, ability to get along with people, ability to adapt, responsibility, initiative.
After receiving and analyzing this information, as a rule, a conclusion will be made about the candidate, which includes a generalized characteristic of those indicators that will contribute to the successful performance of professional duties, as well as those indicators that will hinder it. In conclusion, too, often, the degree of candidate's compliance with the requirements of the proposed position is indicated.
Unstructured interview includes only the most common topics for discussion. In an unstructured interview, the very approach to it, the choice of questions and their wording of questions remains at the discretion of the interviewer. The main disadvantage of this type of interview lies in the lack of sufficient consistency of evaluations among different interviewers, i. their low reliability. When conducting unstructured interviews, different interviewers can focus on those aspects of information about the interviewee that seem to them most significant. Therefore, comparing the results of unstructured interviews is quite difficult. However, unstructured interviews also have a number of advantages.
1. It creates the opportunity to pay more attention to the meaning of the questions asked, rather than their wording. The interviewer can change the wording of the questions to make them more understandable for the interviewee (there is no such possibility in the structured interview).
2. Unstructured interviews in form approach the usual conversation, so the interviewee is in a more natural state, compared with the situation of a structured interview, which encourages him to give more natural answers.
3. Unstructured interviews often provide deeper information about the interviewee. Here the interviewer can ask additional questions about the aspects that interest him, which is also excluded in a structured interview.
Situational interview is developed specifically for specific jobs, professions and positions. The questions in this type of interview do not concern the general characteristics of the individual, but the real types of behavior necessary for the successful performance of the alleged professional activity. Therefore, the first stage of developing a situational interview program is the preparation of descriptions of types of behavior in a given situation that distinguish between successful and unsuccessful workers. Such descriptions are prepared on the basis of a detailed analysis of professional activity. Then, based on these descriptions, questions are formulated as to how the candidate would behave in a given situation, and the options for answering these questions reflect the degree of correctness of the response to this situation.
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