Types of Teaching - Pedagogical Psychology

Exercise Types

As a result, the original concept of teaching was formed. On the basis of the types of orienting bases of actions, P. Ya. Galperin singled out three types of teaching, each of which is characterized by: its orientation in the subject; the progress of the learning process, the quality of its results; the attitude of children towards the process and the subject of the teaching; developing effect.

The first type of the exercise was called the "Path of trial and error" and is characterized by incompleteness of the orienting basis of action. Assimilation of knowledge and skills when using the first type of OOD is very slow, with a lot of mistakes. An action that is performed on the basis of the skill formed in this way is very sensitive to the slightest changes in the conditions for its execution. The expediency of such an action is relative, since it also contains useless operations. It is not reasonable, although it can be performed correctly within certain limits. The transfer to new tasks is negligible. In fact, this type of teaching is not characteristic for the assimilation of social experience, because it relies on the author's own discovery of the necessary guidelines.

The student is given a sample of the action, to which he is oriented as the final result. At the same time, all objectively necessary conditions of action remain hidden and are discovered by the students themselves, which happens by chance and, as a rule, incomplete. The results differ in a wide spread in achievement. This type leads to the accumulation of knowledge and skills, but does not develop either thinking or abilities. Training is based on the opportunities already achieved. The first type corresponds to the traditional learning process, the basis of which is ... sensationalistic passive-associative understanding of the learning process of school knowledge & quot ;. Later he was named V. Davydov "associative-reflex theory of learning". V.V. Repkin calls it an illustrative-explanatory method of teaching.

The second type is distinguished by the construction of an action on a full tentative basis, offered in ready-made form and for individual objects. Training goes without trial and error, systematic education of the desired properties allows you to achieve the intended results without a significant spread of academic performance.

Under the second type of OOD, assimilation proceeds quickly, more precisely, with a small number of random errors. The time spent on mastering is small. Since the student takes into account all the objectively necessary conditions in the performance of the action, the action is not merely expedient (correct), but also reasonable. At the same time, the desired result is stable: if the usual but inessential conditions are violated, the action remains successful. The transfer to new assignments is carried out according to the principle of identical elements. Teaching using the DTE of the second type is a typical case of assimilation of social experience - assimilation in specially organized conditions.

In comparison with the traditional, the second type of teaching is its cardinal improvement. However, it has significant limitations if we go beyond its practical assessments. Aimed at mastering of finished knowledge, he does not bring up theoretical cognitive interest in students, training is reduced to mastering the ways of conceptualization.

A fundamentally new opportunity opens up a third type exercise. With it, the OOD assimilation also occurs without significant errors. The reasonableness of the action, the ability to perform which is formed using such a DTE, is even higher, since the student not only takes into account the conditions necessary to achieve the desired result, but also understands their content and attitude to the future product. This is the main reason for increasing the stability of the action. The transfer to new tasks is complete (within the boundaries of the target area). The learning process is easy, although at first the student may need some time to learn a new method of work - the latter is compensated by the rapid rate of assimilation in the performance of subsequent tasks.

With this type of OOD, the foundation is built by the students independently, although it is directed by the teacher, not for each object separately, not for each individual concept, but for the whole system of them. Thus, the method of constructing the content of the new knowledge and the method of its presentation are fundamentally reconstructed. The approximate basis is aimed at cognition, on the study of the basic structure of the studied objects - the basic units of the given area and the ways of their combination into concrete formations.

The third type requires a radical recycling of educational items. The educational task from the empirical is transformed into a theoretical research process, which causes the emergence of the actual cognitive interest. The latter represents a significant result. The third type differs from the first and second types of teaching on motivation, developing effect, the main thing in this type of teaching is the stimulation of cognitive activity, the ever increasing strengthening and development of cognitive interest. Failures should be considered so as not to discourage the child, to encourage him to seek new solutions. It is the third type that allows to realize the learning effect of learning. DB El'konin and VV Davydov note the substantial connection between the system of developmental learning and the third type of teaching developed by P. Ya. Galperin.

So, in the writings of P.Ya. Galperin and his colleagues, a new important step in the development of the activity approach developed by Leontiev was made. A real way was found to manage the process of mastering knowledge on a psychological basis.

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