A more complete typology was developed in the 20th century. K. G. Young. First of all, he divided people into extraverts (extra-out and heliport) and introverts (intra-inside ).
Figure 2.1. Typology of mental types, according to CG Jung
An extrovert is characterized by a change in the world around him. He is a contact person, alive, mobile, very dependent on other people. He is characterized by impulsiveness, initiative, sociability, flexibility of behavior.
Introvert - on the contrary, is focused on the phenomena of its own inner world, immersed in itself. He is contemplative, slow, trusts more to his own sensation than to other people.
Let's make a distinction between extroverts and introverts, focusing on the tragedy of A.S. Pushkin "Mozart and Salieri". Salieri is a typical introvert. He loves solitude, loneliness, he seeks in himself the basis for assessments and aesthetic preferences. Mozart - extrovert, on the contrary, is sociable, receptive. Having played his work, he asks Salieri: "Is it true, OK?" Mozart is important approval, recognition, which for Salieri is a conclusion from his own reflections and predilections.
Mozart walks past the tavern and hears how some blind violinist plays his work. He plays hideously badly, but Mozart is still fascinated. He drags the violinist to Salieri, so that he also listened to playing the violin. Salieri is outraged:
I'm not funny when the painter is unfit for me. Madonna Raphael, I do not get ridiculous, when the bullshit despicable Paragon disgraces Alighieri.
Salieri does not understand how the Lord gave talent "idiot idle". And so it seems to Mozart. After all, Salieri himself creates music in solitude. He is perplexed, having listened to the "Requiem" composed by Mozart: "Did you go to me with this and could stop at the pub?" But for Mozart it's so natural - a new meeting, new impressions.
Jung showed that a person can adapt to the world around him with the help of four functions: sensations, thoughts, feelings and intuitions
Figure 2.2. Ways of perceiving the world, according to CG Jung
This classification is self-sufficient, there are no other ways to adapt to reality in people.
So, in the human psyche we can find four functions, but they play an unequal role in life, in human behavior. One of the functions is always rooted in the mind. Therefore, the given function Jung calls the leading, or main.
The leading function in many ways determines the way of mastering the world, which is inherent in this person. When two thinking people meet, in the basic model of which thinking plays a leading role, they exchange thoughts. If the two interlocutors have the leading sensing functions, then these people send emotional evaluations to each other, are transferred by affects. When two sensory types talk, they talk about prices, about kitchen gardens and apartments, about fashion. They are rooted in everyday life. Finally, when two intuitions meet, they share prophecies and prophecies.
So, function is a form of mental activity that remains fundamentally unchanged under the new conditions. Sensation determines what happens in fact. Thinking allows us to recognize the meaning, the feeling tells us what is its value and, finally, intuition points to possible "whence" and where are contained in what is currently available (table 2.1).
For the emotional and thought type it is important to rely on the past (was), but for the first one - on one's own or another's personal experience, the second one - on an abstract historical experience. The sensing type believes that which is, and the intuitive type likes to reflect on what will happen.
Although each person has all four functions, one function is always and invariably more developed and more conscious than everyone else.
It is the leading function that helps us to realize our potential, to reveal our capabilities. But here lies the danger of one-sidedness, which often leads to neurosis.
Suppose a person has a well developed thought function. Is it bad? You can say yes, if this function is supported by others that are not leading. A thinking person can become a fanatic of an idea. In the history of mankind there were many enthusiasts who imposed on people all sorts of utopian ideas, demonstrated schematism or simplicity of thought. In the same way, the bearer of the sensory function can turn into a philistine, in the "home hen", who knows only the imperatives of everyday life. The sensory function, not enriched by reflection, is capable of engendering exaltation, tearfulness. A intuitive (a man with good intuition) may turn out to be a blind prophet, because he can not reasonably justify his predictions ...
For a complete orientation, all four functions must make the same contribution. Thinking is bound to facilitate recognition and comprehension, the feeling will tell us about the extent to which certain things turn out to be important or unimportant for us, the sensation communicates about a concrete reality through sight, hearing, taste, etc., and intuition makes us capable of prediction of hidden opportunities, nesting
Uncertainly feels in a new environment, tries to avoid decisions that can break ties with the past or greatly change his life. In youth, when personal experience is not enough, they are capable of adventure, risk. Later they become conservative personalities. They prefer strong, even unpleasant experiences. They blame themselves for their misfortunes, they apologize for a long time because of trifles. Slowly change the opinion of people. Everyone is considered from the point of view of personal relationships (who did what to whom)
Any problem can be understood by finding out its occurrence, development and possible result. Arranges events in their sequence. He is interested in a holistic process. Lives in accordance with the principles. He does not hurry to act, he prefers to think about, come to a logical decision. He knows how to plan in time, tries to avoid changes in the intended. Time for him is a serious factor. Rejects facts that do not agree with his theory. Inept representatives of this type are dogmatic, picky, self-confident, arrogant
Are interested in what is happening now. It does not matter where it comes from, it's important that it goes. For him, the thing exists, if it can be touched, seen, heard. For him to know whether it's good to experience it on yourself. He prefers any feeling to his absence. Not lazy, active. Copes well with an unexpected, even a crisis situation. Acts without hesitation, does not think about the reaction of others
For him, the present is a pale shadow, the past is a nebula. He often gives the impression of a frivolous, impractical person. Impatient, because what's important is not what is, but what will be. Quickly, easily jump from one activity to another. Curious, unpunctual, addicted nature. He does not care what others think. He will not stop at nothing to change the world in accordance with his convictions
in the background of the phenomena in the background, since the latter also belong to the holistic picture of the given situation.
Imagine a man of primitive epoch. To survive, he must develop a feeling. Otherwise, how can you find out about the properties of a tree, about the strength of fire, about the fertility of the earth, or about the advantages of a cave, where you can hide from wild animals. This person should be clever. It's also a matter of life and death. In any situation it is necessary to prove yourself not so much an ape as an intelligent person. It is also impossible to survive unless you develop a sensory function. Not only the mind, but the subtlety of feelings makes man a man. The cult of ancestors can only be created by a person who has noble feelings. Finally, how to manage without intuition, if circumstances constantly change and it is necessary to foresee the development of events? Now the cave is good for dwelling. But what will happen, for example, in the winter ...
A person of traditional culture is also faced with the need to develop all the functions. It is necessary to touch the black soil with understanding, throw the necessary grain into it, pour skillfully and profitably. This requires the development of a sensory function. But after all, on one sensation you will not break out of need. You have to pocume, think. The peasant has cattle. What is good for a cow, a horse or a dog, if the owner has a bad feeling? And to estimate the possibilities of being, to rely on intuition God Himself commanded.
And yet, all four functions can not be developed by anyone. In the village, in the community there is always a specialization. There is a connoisseur of the earth, and there is a weather predictor or even a prophet. There is also a smith capable of solving any life problem, showing love, sympathy, kindness. There is also a head in the community - one who can deeper and more consistently think about the situation.
But there is another reason that makes the development of all functions impossible. The fact is that one of them is generally called subordinate. It is poorly developed in general and therefore is the curse of your life. Think about what is hardest in life? Why is every time you are in the same situation, you suffer a complete defeat? One, for example, does not have developed thinking. For him is a huge difficulty to comprehend this or that problem, to subject it to analysis.
Another example. Someone has poorly developed sensation function. It is in its structure - subordinate. And this person does not know how to express his emotions, seems cold, unfeeling or, on the contrary, mournful, exalted ... Have you not met people about whom they say: not from this world? They are poorly rooted in reality, do not understand the details of life, can not equip their lives. What to do: a sensing function is a subordinate ...
Finally, many often make mistakes in close people. They are completely devoid of intuition, they fly like moths to a flame and perish. The girlfriend betrayed him, the lover left him. However, it was noticeable to others. But the victims of bad intuition did not even know about this outcome. What to do: an intuitive function is a subordinate ...
Differentiation of functions begins in early childhood. One boy presses to mathematics and chess, the other plays Chopin with moist eyes. And this girl, well, remember, from the movie "We'll Live To Monday", dreams about the family, about the children, about the farm ... Parents often, of course, notice what the child aspires to. Suppose they contribute in every possible way to the blossoming of the revealed tendency. Is it good? Not always, because the one-sidedness of the leading function has already been said. It develops, but the remaining functions fade away. The personality looks one-sided.
But it happens differently. In the family there is a cult of some profession, and parents want their child to follow in their footsteps. Let's say a father is a lawyer, and the child clearly belongs to a feeling type, is fond of music. On the one hand, this is obvious violence. The boy will never become an intellectual, a thinking type. But on the other hand, there is something positive here. After all, we have talked about the leading and subordinate functions. And where else two out of four? They are called similar, auxiliary.
The helper functions gravitate either to the master, or to the subordinate. In other words, they can be active, "tightened", well developed. Sometimes analysts make mistakes and even accept a side function for the lead. After all, in general, it is also working and quite differentiated. And vice versa, sometimes an auxiliary function also fails: it is closer to a subordinate.
Which functions are good and which are not very good? All functions are good, they determine the identity of our personality. The words leading or subject function are not of an evaluation nature. It's just that one person is most likely to use one function, while the other has a different function.
Jung tried to understand why psychological reality looks different in one or another of the researchers. After all, the psyche is one and should, apparently, demonstrate the same essence. It turns out that Freud, who was an extrovert, noticed only these types. Adler, being an introvert, is just like him. Adler, therefore, focuses on the subject, wholly absorbed in attempts to secure his own security and gain control over the objects and things around him. In Freud, all attention is transferred to objects that, due to their specific qualities, favor or interfere with the hedonistic aspirations of the subject.
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