Upbringing and re-education of character - Fundamentals of General Psychology

Character Education and Re-education

Character is not given to us from birth, but is formed throughout life. A sensitive period for the formation of character can be considered the age of 2-3 to 9-10 years, when children interact much and actively with surrounding adults, readily accept them, imitate in everything. Psychoanalysts say that every person creates a scenario of his own life as a child. With age, we are reviewing it a little, adding new details, but on the whole, the character and life guides remain the same as in childhood. What will be the life scenario, the nature, largely depends on the attitudes that the parents give the child, on their statements, on what feelings are forbidden and which are encouraged in the family. If a person pursues failures, and events, situations, conflicts from time to time are repeated and have an undesirable end, then, most likely, there is a negative scenario, i.e. the strategy of character formation, the life plan that you use, are unsuccessful.

Not only the surrounding people educate a person, but he himself can deal with his upbringing. Self-education is a systematic and conscious activity of a person aimed at self-development, self-improvement.

Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) - American educator and statesman, one of the authors of the Declaration of Independence of the United States, in his youth made for himself a self-education plan and at the end of each week noted cases of its non-fulfillment. Here's the complex:

■ Abstinence. You can eat not to satiety and drink not to intoxication.

■ Silence. It is necessary to speak only that which can benefit me or another; avoid empty conversations.

■ Order. Keep all your things in place; for each lesson, have your place and time.

■ Decisiveness. You have to decide to do what you have to do; Strictly perform what is decided.

■ Industriousness. We can not waste time; one must always be occupied with something useful; you should discard all unnecessary actions and contacts.

■ Sincerity. You can not deceive, you must have pure and fair thoughts.

■ Justice. You can not harm anyone; you can not avoid good deeds that are part of your responsibilities.

■ Moderation. You should avoid extremes; to restrain, as far as you deem appropriate, a sense of resentment from injustice.

■ Clean. One should not allow bodily mud; observe neatness in clothes and in a home.

■ Calm. Do not worry about trifles.

■ Modesty.

"In sum," Franklin summed up the end of his life, "although I am far from the perfection to which my ambitious goals were directed, but my efforts have made me better and happier than I would have been without it experience ...

Self-education begins with the recognition and acceptance of motivation for self-change. Forming and realizing this motivation, a person faces external and internal difficulties, the overcoming of which requires his volitional efforts.

Only at a certain stage of personality development does a person become aware of not only external but also internal sources of his behavior and, based on this, can purposefully change and correct motives, goals and methods of activity.

Self-education requires a sufficiently developed intellect and willpower, so in the early and preschool childhood the question of self-education is not worth it, but already at the younger school age the child begins to have an internal motivation for self-change. The most sensitive period for self-education is adolescence. The task of an adult at this stage is to support the child's desire for self-improvement, taking into account age and individual characteristics, to help him in setting and implementing goals of self-education. As in the teaching, the main task of the teacher is "to teach to learn", so in education it is important to "educate the internal educator".

Self-education is carried out through various methods, means and techniques. The most common are self-sufficiency, keeping a diary, planning personal life and professional activity, self-report, etc.

Self-commitment includes understanding the goals and objectives of self-improvement, developed, thought out, internally taken decisions on the formation and development of this or that quality or group of qualities.

In accordance with self-binding principles and rules of personal behavior are developed as the basis for high self-organization of personal life, educational, official and socio-political activities of a person.

Many facts are known for the development and effective use of such rules, for example: "If I know that I know little, I will achieve that I know more"; or: "In order to achieve the required height, you need to stick to the rule: seven times measure, one time cut"; It is necessary to take as a rule: better by a smaller number, but by a higher quality and others

Often a person independently formulates for himself personal rules, which he strives to adhere to in order to self-improvement, self-organization. However, these may be rules derived from the foundations of Christian morality and morality, or borrowed from the great people of the past and the present.

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