Use of psychodiagnostics in medical institutions...

Using psychodiagnostics in medical institutions

Psychodiagnostics is actively being introduced into the field of medicine, in particular in psychiatric and neurological clinics. Diagnostic methods for studying the psychological characteristics of patients of these clinics are considered as auxiliary, subordinate to the tasks and interests of the clinic. These methods develop within the framework of special branches of psychological science - experimental pathopsychology and neuropsychology.

Methods of psychodiagnostic examination are used in the clinic primarily in cases when doctors have difficulties with the diagnosis. It is known that in a number of cases psychodiagnostic methods make it possible to clarify a medical diagnosis. In addition, psychodiagnostics is often used to evaluate the effectiveness of therapy. And, finally, psychodiagnostics is necessary for the study of patients for labor, military and forensic purposes.

The main feature of psychodiagnostic examination of patients in the clinic is the significant role played by little-formalized methods of diagnosis - observation and conversation . These methods should be mastered by a clinical psychologist in perfection, he must achieve great skill in the ability to talk with a patient, observe him and describe his mental state. This is due to the fact that the contact establishes contact with the patient, reveals the various shades of his mental and physical state, symptoms of the disease, fixes his complaints, manifestations of the disease, and the impact on relationships with others and so on. The manner in which the patient is told, the features of his speech can give an idea of ​​the personality of the patient, his character, and such information can be useful for the interaction of the doctor and the patient. So, for example, with epileptoid accentuation of a character, patients talk about their complaints leisurely, in detail, in detail, talk about the most insignificant trifles and at the same time do not like to be interrupted, considering it a manifestation of the doctor's inattention, his low skill. With a hysterical accentuation in the stories about their disease, pretentiousness and theatricality are described in the description of complaints, excessive affectation and the desire to impress others with its unusualness and exclusivity. With psychasthenic accentuation, the patient immediately after the complaints, and sometimes instead they are followed by lengthy arguments about the nature of the disease, its causes, its hypotheses, etc.

Observation, like a conversation, is paramount in a psychodiagnostic examination of patients, it accompanies other methods of research. In general, observation is very important for a clinical psychologist, however, it is difficult in the clinic to comply with all the requirements for this method. But it is necessary to strive for long-term observation, observation in different situations (when examined by specialists, when meeting with relatives, etc.). The diagnostic should constantly monitor itself, avoiding bias assessments. It should be remembered about possible simulation and dissimulation by the patient.

However, a clinical psychologist can not confine himself to using only the methods of conversation and observation, they are necessarily complemented by an experimental study giving more accurate information about the patient.

In experimental research, the patient is offered to perform a number of tasks aimed at diagnosing individual mental functions. The performance analysis is systematic, taking into account the fact that, in the case of anomalies in the psychic sphere, the violation of one of any mental processes leads to a systemic effect, i.e. to the violation of other processes associated with the impaired. The most common elements of the activity structure are also fixed, such as active orientation in the material, purposefulness, criticality. A qualitative analysis of the process of performing tasks is carried out, the behavior of the subject is evaluated at the time of diagnosis, and error types are identified.

When diagnosing, it is taken into account that the symptoms of mental disorders can have their own, sometimes very complex development mechanism; the cause of each symptom can be very different, it is not specified, is not predetermined by the defeat of the brain itself. Any investigated function can be violated for various reasons, and the task of psychodiagnostics is to identify the causes and mechanisms of the occurrence of violations.

In order to achieve this goal, in clinical counseling, the experimental study is conducted in accordance with specific principles, including the simplicity of the instruction, the thoroughness of recording the experience, the modified motivation of the tasks, the focus on a qualitative analysis of performance, etc. Patients should be examined comprehensively, methods, the choice of which is determined by the clinical task and the patient's condition.

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