Variative didactic cards - Pedagogical psychology

Variational didactic cards

How does the teacher work with ITU? How to identify and use it in the learning process? It starts with the organization of the situation of choice. And not one, but a whole series of such situations. In the teaching and educational process in the school of choice situations there can be an infinite number. What conditions and options for choosing to use depends on the desire of the teacher himself, more precisely, on what indicators of the student's educational selectivity are of interest to him at the moment.

One of the possible ways of the teacher's work with the ITU of students in the process of mastering them with program material can be the use of variable didactic cards (VDK) at the lesson. It is important that this teacher conducts the work in natural conditions for children and "without detachment" from the learning process. In addition, the use of VCD allows the teacher to really implement an individual approach to each student in a regular lesson in a mass school environment.

A rare teacher does not use didactic cards in his work. Usually, he chooses in class a few students who are given certain tasks on cards. And while the whole class is engaged in a common work for all, these few "elected" solve their tasks. As a rule, didactic cards do not contain anything, except for the content of the assignment and its number. However, sometimes the teacher sorts out for himself all the tasks in terms of complexity and even accompanies them with the corresponding icons on the cards (for example, an asterisk). At the same time, he himself distributes assignments among children, relying on his ideas about the capabilities of this or that student. At the end of the work of students with didactic cards, the teacher controls their implementation (calls the children to the board or checks the notes in the notebook) and assesses their achievements.

Didactic cards are usually designed for individual work of students. Tasks for teamwork on cards are almost never used. This allows the teacher to speak with confidence about didactic cards as one of the forms of implementing an individual approach in the lesson.

In the traditional education system, the teacher is the central figure in the class. He acts as the main initiator and controller of everything that is happening. He takes all the basic decisions regarding what, how, when and with whom students in his class will study. In this sense, the above-described work with didactic cards is no exception. As for individualization, then, as we have seen, it is realized only in relation to some students. The essence of this kind of individualization lies in the fact that an individual approach to students is carried out on the basis of professional selectivity and activity of the teacher.

However, in modern education the student has a significantly more active role. In it, the student as a subject of learning has a real and everyday opportunity to influence what and how he studies, makes independent decisions, and makes choices. To do this, in today's lesson, didactic cards are also used, but here they have an important difference. These cards are prepared and used in such a way that it is not the teacher, but the student himself decides what to do and how. He provides a personal, free and responsible choice from all the options offered to him by the teacher.

VDK, but its essence is a specially organized and thought-out field of choice for the teacher, namely, an assortment of diverse in content, degree of complexity and form of the performance of study assignments. Such a diversity stimulates students independently and consciously (with the help of the symbols indicated on the cards) to choose their work, then to proceed to its implementation as part of a pair, subgroup or individually, to select from themselves the means and materials they need, to use their own, individual ways of learning. " In the situation of independent free choice, the individuality of each student, his individual trajectory of learning, is most clearly manifested.

In this lesson, each student in the class is in the situation of choosing an assignment for himself. Each child, on the basis of his individual interests and preferences, himself chooses the appropriate didactic card. Therefore, we can safely say that an individual approach in this case is carried out in relation to each child.

In the educational process, the VCD has three main functions.

1. Didactic. VDK (as it actually follows from their name) is a didactic material. Thus, they contribute to the solution of the learning tasks for mastering children with program knowledge, skills and skills.

2. Developing. The VCD and the methodology of using them in the lesson allows achieving the development goals that modern education sets itself. For example, when working with cards, children learn to make independent and informed decisions, make informed and responsible choices, use various sources of information, cooperate with peers in the process of solving common problems.

3. Diagnostic. Using the technology of working with VKD allows the teacher in the lesson not only to teach but also (not less importantly) to study children, to reveal their individual characteristics: motivations and cognitive interests, characteristic methods of teaching and preferences to the content and form of the educational material, the social status among classmates, i.e. those indicators that characterize their individual trajectory of learning.

However, it should be noted that the use of the VCD lesson requires the teacher to switch from the usual role of the mentor and the controller to the position of an assistant who teaches and educates less, but helps the children to learn and be educated independently. At the same time, he observes the actions of children, tries to identify the motives for their choice, fixes and analyzes the individual trajectory of each child's teaching.

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