Violation of the personal component of thinking
In the clinic of mental illness, there are disturbances in thinking due to personality disorders. These include the diversity of thinking, the violation of criticality and self-regulation.
Thinking is a complex self-regulatory form of activity. It is determined by the goal, the task. An important stage of the mental activity is the comparison of the results obtained with the conditions of the problem and the expected outcomes. In order for this act of comparison to be carried out, the human thought
Fig. 2. Manifestation of some types of thinking disorders in various methods
should be active, aimed at objective reality. The loss of purposeful thinking leads not only to the superficiality and incompleteness of judgments, but also to the fact that thinking ceases to be a regulator of human actions.
However, the notion that thinking is the regulator of actions should not be understood as if thinking should be regarded as a source, as the driving force of behavior. F. Engels wrote: "People are accustomed to explain their actions from their thinking, instead of explaining them from their needs (which, of course, are reflected in the head, are realized), and this way, over time, there was that idealistic worldview that mastered the minds especially since the death of the ancient world [2, 493].
Therefore, the source of human action is the conscious needs that have arisen as a result of the social and labor activity of man. The need, realized by the person, appears for him in the form of concrete life goals and tasks. The real human activity aimed at achieving these goals and solving these problems is regulated and corrected by thinking. The thought, awakened by necessity, becomes the regulator of action; so that thinking can regulate behavior, it must be purposeful, critical, personally motivated.
There is no thinking, divorced from the needs, motives, aspirations, attitudes, feelings of a person, i.e. from the person as a whole. This was written by SL Rubinshtein in his book "On thinking and the ways of his research": "The question of motives, the motivations of analysis and the synthesis of thinking in general ... is, in essence, the question of the origins in which it takes its beginning one or another thought process [159, 87].
L. S. Vygotsky constantly stressed that thought is not the last instance, that the idea itself is born not from another thought, but from the motivating sphere of our consciousness that embraces our drives and needs, our interests and motivations, our affects and emotions.
In constructing his theory of the step-by-step formation of mental actions, P. Ya. Galperin  points out the necessity first of all for the formation of a motive for action.
In recent years, there has been an approach to thinking as an activity of managing the search for solutions to problems. Although this aspect, dictated by cybernetic research, certainly turned out to be fruitful for the psychology of thinking, he also caused a number of researchers to take a one-sided approach in analyzing the thinking process, thinking began to be regarded as an analogue of the work of electronic computers. It began to be reduced to elementary information processes, to manipulation of symbols. OK Tikhomirov correctly notes that the spread of cybernetics has led to a concentration of attention on the scheme of any activity, and "the problem of specifically human characteristics of the activity is pushed to the background" [185, 31].
Meanwhile, speaking of the "partial" the nature of human activity, AN Leont'ev writes that the personal meaning expresses precisely his (subject - BZ ) attitude to the perceived objective phenomena [110, 281]. Naturally, the changed personal meaning should play a significant role in the structure and course of mental activity.
The connection between the disturbance of thinking and the change in the motivational sphere is observed with different forms of mental illness. Even when analyzing the kind of pathology of thinking that we called the "distortion of the level of generalization", we can essentially speak of a violation of the motivational component of thinking. As noted, patients who have acted like a violation, relied in their judgments on attributes and properties that did not reflect the real relationship between the objects.
Such violations were particularly clear in some experimental samples that required the selection and selection of features on the basis of which synthesis and generalization is possible (for example, with different variants of object classification). We cited ways to classify objects like these when the spoon could be combined with the car "by the principle of movement", the closet combined with the pan because the "both have holes". Often objects were combined on the basis of their coloring, location in space or style of drawing. Such an increased facilitated updating of formal associations, inadequate rapprochement has been revealed by other researchers. So, Yu. F. Polyakov  and TK Meleshko  give an example when a patient sees the similarity between a pencil and a boot in that "both leave a trace". Describing such phenomena, they explain them by the fact that random, unlikely links are actualized in patients with the same frequency as hardened ones. This position is correct. It is necessary, however, to understand what the concepts of "significant," "hardened", "significant" are in the psychological sense. or, conversely, random attributes or properties of objects.
Significant, essential is for a person that has acquired meaning in his life. Not the frequency of the appearance of a particular feature or property of an object makes it significant or significant, but that meaningfulness, the role that this feature played in a person's life. The essentiality of the sign and the properties, the significance of the object or phenomenon itself depend on the what meaning they have acquired for it. The phenomenon, object, event can acquire a different meaning in different life conditions, although knowledge about them remains the same. AN Leont'ev explicitly indicates that the phenomenon is changing on the part of "meaning for the person."
However, the significance of things, the totality of our knowledge about them, remain stable. Despite the fact that the personal orientation and content of the motives may be different, the main practical activity forms the stability of the objective meaning of things.
Our perception of the world always includes both the semantic attitude to it, and its objective-objective meaning. Under certain circumstances, one or the other prevails, but both are merged in harmonic unity.
Of course, changing emotions, strong affects can also lead a healthy person to the fact that objects and their properties will begin to perform in some altered meaning. However, in the experimental situation, no matter how significant it may be to the patient, the objects appear in their unambiguous characteristic. The utensils always appear as dishes, and furniture - as furniture. With all the individual differences - the difference in education, for all the heterogeneity of motives, interests - a healthy person, if necessary, classify objects does not fit the spoon as a "moving object". The classification operation can be carried out in a more or less generalized plan, but the object value of the object with which a person performs a particular operation remains stable. Therefore, the signs on the basis of which the classification operation is carried out, the actualizing properties of objects are to some extent character of standardity and banality. In a number of patients with schizophrenia, this stability of the objective significance of things has been disrupted.
Of course, they also developed common (in comparison with the norm) knowledge of things and phenomena. They eat with a spoon and use a trolley as a means of transportation; as applied to the intellectual task - the classification of objects - the same patients could refer the spoon to the category of utensils or cabinet to the category of furniture, but at the same time the spoon could act as an object of "movement". Along with the actualization of the usual properties of attributes, conditioned by the whole past, relations between objects and phenomena, inadequate (from the point of view of normal notions of the world) connections and relations that could only make sense thanks to changed attitudes and motives of patients could be revived. That unity, which included the meaning of the object and the semantic attitude towards it, was lost due to a change in the sphere of motives and attitudes. Particularly violated was the violation of the personal component in the form of thinking disorders, which we described as "diversity of thinking."
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