Violation of the process of self-regulation of cognitive...

Violation of the process of self-regulation of cognitive activity

Violations of self-regulation (Chapter 4, item 4.6) play a particularly important role in the implementation of cognitive activity. These violations are expressed in the impossibility of purposeful organization of their thought actions. Some forms of disturbance of thinking can not be explained without attracting the notion of self-regulation: they should be seen as manifestations of a violation of awareness and control over their thinking activities. Such forms of violation of cognitive processes do not affect the implementation of logical operations: patients may be available to some tasks that require developed abstract thinking. However, in the circumstances of the need to organize their actions (in situations of uncertainty, choice, difficulty, conflict), these patients are unable to carry out purposeful activities.

For example, such violations of the dynamics of thinking, as vagueness, non-purposefulness, are, in fact, an expression of disorganization of thinking.

In Chapter 4, the problem of violation of self-regulation and mediation of behavior as a whole was already discussed. The concretization of this problem with reference to the analysis of violations of thinking was carried out by AB Kholmogorova [190]. As one of the most important aspects of self-regulation of thinking, the author considers its reflective aspect associated with the process of awareness, verification, restructuring and development of means and methods of activity by the subject. Two functions (control and constructive) of reflexion in cognitive activity are distinguished. The control function acts in the form of checking the compliance of an action with an existing standard; constructive function is carried out in the form of awareness and restructuring of mental actions.

As AB Holmogorova rightly notes, self-regulation is not reduced to awareness, control and restructuring of thought processes. Depending on how a person realizes himself in a given problem situation, how he experiences it, it acquires a different meaning for him. The experience of the situation can stimulate the further continuation of the search or the rejection of it. In other words, self-regulation can be aimed at mobilizing internal resources to solve a meaningful difficulty (solving a problem or task) or to withdraw from a conflict situation of difficulty (rejection of further solutions and the desire to discredit the task or justify itself). In accordance with this, two more functions of self-regulation of cognitive activity are singled out - mobilizing (productive from the point of view of regulation of thinking) and protective (unproductive).

On the material of solving problems on the consideration of patients with schizophrenia (sluggish form) A. B. Kholmogorova showed that patients are weakening the process of self-regulation of thinking, manifested in the violation of constructive and mobilizing functions with relative safety of control and activation of protective. Patients are able to control their actions in the conditions of the formation of the standard of action. But if it is necessary to independently develop a new mode of action and to reorganize the former, the patients do not realize the inadequacy of their actions, and, in fact, there is no restructuring. In situations of difficulty, protective forms of behavior are activated: withdrawal from the situation under various pretexts, the refusal to continue the decision comes much faster than in the norm. Decreased awareness of cogitative actions, lack of focus on resolving the substantive difficulty adversely affect the overall productivity of mental activity.

In the study of AB Kholmogorova it was also shown that in schizophrenic patients one of the most important mechanisms of self-regulation is violated, the basis of decentration and self-analysis is the ability to change positions, alienate and objectify their actions. So, when defining concepts with instructions for clarity to another person (so that another person can unambiguously guess what exactly is at stake), the patients often failed to present themselves in the position of the guesser, adequately use cultural experience. At the same time, healthy subjects used signs called A.B. Kholmogorova's "cultural marks", for example, apple-fruit, which fell on the head to Newton, etc. The definitions of the patients were blurred, they did not allow to guess which subject they were talking about, while the healthy subjects were searching for signs that possessed a sufficiently differentiating force.

Similar violations of self-regulation are associated with violations of the motivational and need sphere. Analysis of the specifics of stable personality changes in schizophrenia in comparison with the data of experimental psychological research led the author to conclude that the so-called "self-restraint setting" is a significant factor in the disturbance of self-regulation in patients with schizophrenia with predominance of negative symptoms. The latter is expressed in the focus on limiting contacts and spheres of activity, preference for acting, well-updated ways, avoiding difficulties and intellectual tension.

The obtained data make it possible to explain the fact noted by many researchers that the greatest severity of a violation is either to literally follow a given goal or to pass to an arbitrary goal-setting. This is evidenced also by the study of AP Kornilov [92], which shows the differences in the formation of the formation of finite and intermediate goals in the solution of mental problems: if the impulsiveness of goals is reduced in patients with schizophrenia, then the regulatory aspect of goal formation is disrupted in patients with epilepsy.

The study shows that the violation of goal-forming in the thinking activity of both nosological groups is dynamic and depends on the general hierarchy of goals facing the subjects. They reflect the actual relationship in the process of solving the relationship between the direction, motivation and arbitrariness of the ultimate goals.

It is also established that when targeting is being deployed under the conditions of a given decision plan, such features of mental activity as violations of the incentive and regulatory aspects of goal-setting are revealed; when the objective content of goals is not specified, in the conditions of their arbitrary nomination, characteristic disturbances of thinking are manifested: the actualization of latent, unusual properties of objects, the abstractness of constructs in patients with schizophrenia; specificity, detail, rigidity of thinking - in patients with epilepsy.

The study of AP Kornilov [92] showed that in patients with schizophrenia and epilepsy, the degree of impairment of mental activity manifests itself approximately equally with the use of various methodical techniques, with greater severity of violations, a greater degree of specificity in the violation of goal formation is observed.

As an experimental material, tasks were chosen from the game "kalah", in which it was required to find the best move (1st method); as well as a description of a simple geometric figure to the prospective partner, who, according to this description, should reproduce it (the second method).

In the tasks of the game character ("kalah"), the ultimate goal is to find the best move - it is necessary to develop the processes of the independent development of the final goal of the solution and intermediate goal-formation from the subject. The second technique put the subjects in a situation where, depending on the nature of the acceptance of the instruction requirement, they could literally follow a given goal or move on to an arbitrary transformation.

The results of the study of AP Kornilov showed that if the objective content of targets is unsuccessful in the conditions of their arbitrary nomination, dynamic disturbances of thinking characteristic of these groups of patients are manifested; actualization of latent, unusual properties of objects, abstractness of construction - in patients with schizophrenia, rigidity of thinking - in patients with epilepsy.

The results of the application of techniques aimed at revealing certain characteristics of the goal-setting of mental patients, show that in the context of the development of procedural regulation of thinking, specific features of its functioning are observed. These features are dynamic. First, their manifestation depends on the overall hierarchy of goals in solving problems. Secondly, they reflect the interrelationships between the direction, motivation and arbitrariness of the ultimate goals that are developing in the process of solving.

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