The tools and intellectual behavior of great apes in natural conditions
Observations of many researchers show that chimpanzees in nature operate with objects more intense than all mammals, excluding, of course, man. They catch the ants and termites with branches that are carefully selected, cleaned of leaves and shoots through broaches drawn through a fist. The same cleared branch of the chimpanzee takes out honey from the bee nest. Moreover, when a chimpanzee extracts biting ants with a stick, he, not to stand in front of an anthill, arranges a row of branches from a growing young tree and from there, unattainable, gets himself tasty insects. Japanese ethologists who observed chimpanzees in the mountains of Tanzania describe how the monkey used leaves as a rod for obtaining ants, and, very importantly, it was done during rest, without much zeal to get food, just for fun.
Q. Köhler made many interesting observations of the instrumental activity of chimpanzees in the colony in Tenerife outside the experiments. In particular, he wrote that monkeys often used sticks for different purposes. So, for example, taking a stick of green branches through a grid, which was surrounded by a yard, one of the chimps somehow damaged this grid. Soon the hole with the help of the same stick was expanded so that the chimpanzees began to go through it to freedom, then returning voluntarily to the colony.
Chimpanzees used a stick and to dig into the ground. They did this with great diligence, while they kept her hands, sometimes resorting to the help of teeth, and often pressed her end with her foot, leaning on it like a shovel. Monkeys with a stick dug from the ground fresh roots of plants, which they eagerly ate. Obviously, the same method of chimpanzees is used in nature. The stick serves them also as a means of defense or attack. In a colony in Tenerife, chimpanzees were killed with sticks of lizards or frogs accidentally ran into the playground. V. Kohler noted that none of the monkeys did not touch the victim with his hands, and at the slightest movement of all, they all jumped aside.
On the playground there was a hole for water drain, covered with a wooden lid with a ring. Chimpanzees have learned to lift the lid with a stick, using it as a lever, just like people do, and licking dirty water.
For fun, monkeys were given straw and small sticks. Chimpanzees dipped straws in water and licked them several times. Once in a drinker with water added a red wine. Monkeys began to drink in the usual way, but, apparently, the drink seemed too harsh to them. Then the chimpanzees took straws and began dipping them in a drinking bowl and then licking.
In the experimental colony of chimpanzees on Tenerife, along the fence of the fence, there was an ant trail through which the ants ran one way and the other. One of the chimpanzees lowered his finger into the ant track, and the ant, apparently, bit him. Then the chimpanzee took a finger in his mouth and ate an ant. Then he took a straw and put it in the place of a cluster of ants, and when a few of them were on a straw, he ate them. The larded straw was again put to the ants, but since it was now wet from saliva, the ants immediately clung to its end. The chimpanzee again sent them into his mouth. Other chimpanzees immediately became interested in this activity, and soon it was possible to observe a whole group of monkeys sitting near the fence each with their own straw, catching and eating ants (Figure 16.6). This fascination lasted for a while, and then gradually passed.
Fig. 16.6. The chimpanzee uses a rod to retrieve ants
For a while the monkeys had a habit of throwing various objects, most often stones. At first, the cast was very awkward, but later Chika, for example, generally distinguished by the perfect coordination of movements, well mastered this art, revealing more thrifty movements and increasing accuracy of throws.
It can be noted that the throwing of various objects in the wild was recorded not only in the anthropoid apes, but also in the lower ones: baboons, macaques, capuchins, etc. However, the differences between the higher and lower monkeys in this behavior are quite distinct. According to J. Goodall, chimpanzees deliberately threw sticks and stones at baboons, but baboons in chimpanzees never.
A branch or a stick of chimpanzees often touch something they do not want to touch with their hands. They beat an enemy (their own or someone else's kind) with a stick or touch the partner in a friendly manner during the game. If the stick, for example, does not climb into the crack, the chimpanzee bites the end of its gun.
A variety of items, including sticks, are actively used to cleanse the body. The monkey that has entered the mud or feces does not step on the stained limb until it cleans it of the clogged mud, for this purpose sticks are most often used. Chimpanzees cleanse the body of blood, food, feces, sperm, tar with sticks, grass, leaves (similar behavior is known in baboons). Chimpanzees wriggle the leaves and grass to prepare a "sponge", by which rainwater is extracted for drinking from a hollow or indentation in a fork in a tree. In some cases, they use this sponge and for washing, for example, during rain.
Chimpanzees use a variety of tools and to provide themselves with first aid. So, according to observations of S. Brewer (1982), the chimpanzee William cleared his ears with chopsticks or bird feathers, having previously twisted them between the thumb and forefinger, as people do, making cotton swabs. If he had a cold, then William stuffed the stalk deep into the nostrils of the grass stalk and left them there until they jumped out of the sneeze. He often picks his wand in his teeth, sometimes pre-sharpening them.
Observations of the dwarf chimpanzees of bonobos revealed a wide variety of their instrumental activities. So, one of them, kept in a large enclosure, was building a real swing. For this he made a string of soft long rods, threw it across the crossbar and adjusted the ends in such a way that he could hang on them. The same bonobo easily jumped a two-meter pond using a pole.
L. A. Firsov collected a whole collection of objects that the chimpanzee used in natural conditions, and described in detail "work" monkeys with them. He noted that chimpanzees, apparently, are the only ones of all anthropoids that use tools in nature regularly for various purposes, and this is recorded in various habitats: in dense forest, savannah, woodland. The use of tools follows immediately after their manufacture, but the useful object is well remembered. In his book And. P. Pavlov and experimental primatology LA Firsov describes an interesting case. Chimpanzees Taras for a long time could not reach the fruit on a table set on the water, then suddenly ran away and returned with a kayak paddle, trying to get them bait. He took advantage of the subject, which had once done something and achieved success. Many authors note the different use of tools depending on sex: if females use them more vigorously for food, then males are more often as weapons.
Sometimes males, moving on the hind limbs, throwing shells "by their hands" in the opponents. J. Goodall described 44 patterns of similar actions against other chimpanzees, baboons, lizards and humans. In most cases, stones rushed. It has long been known that chimpanzees use stones to break down nuts. So, in Guinea for breaking nuts, they use two stones - the "anvil" and hammer & quot ;. And, as a rule, stones correspond to each other for such work. Near the fruiting palms in the places of constant feeding of monkeys there are "working sites", where at a distance of 10 m find hammer stones, most often rounded. Chimpanzees do not modify stones themselves and can not stand them for long distances. Hammer stones met a variety of weight - from 160 to 1580. It happens that chimpanzees are used for breaking nuts and wooden clubs. There is an assumption that the tradition of cracking nuts is borrowed from monkeys by local residents. In different areas of Guinea and Sierra Leone, there are specific features of breaking the chimpanzee nuts, and not all animal populations consistently produce this work. In general, chimpanzees living near people, thanks to imitation, are often quite successfully trained in a variety of activities that fit organically into their behavior.Well-known American primatologist and anthropologist W. McGrew, who studied the behavior of monkeys a lot, produced a very interesting comparison of the manufacture and use of tools for obtaining food from extinct tribes of Aboriginal Tasmania and the Tanzanian chimpanzee in the last century. The author used the classification of technology for Oswalt. It was formerly taken for granted that chimpanzees are not comparable even with primitive people in such a sphere. Indeed, the most important differences were revealed: only human tools consisted of more than two components, and only they were made with the help of other tools. However, however ... "The results demonstrate a surprising similarity in the set of tools, raw materials, the share of the manufactured tools in comparison with the already prepared ones, in the degree of complexity, the type of mining, etc." The author found many parallels. Thus, the ratio of artificial implements (artifacts) and natural (not requiring pre-treatment - natufaktov) was almost the same for humans and monkeys -10: 3 and 10: 2, respectively. The guns were based on the same raw material: wood, stones, shrubs. People and monkeys tried to "outwit" prey - in humans it was shelter, in chimpanzees - roost. But only people used fire, only knotted knots and attached baits met, all chimpanzee artifacts were prepared with the help of hands and teeth, while in humans it was mostly (but not always) with the help of other tools. The instruments of the chimpanzee did not have any clutches, they did not consist of connected forms, i.e. more than one technical dataset & quot ;. U. McGrew eventually concluded that, despite the more complex technology of obtaining funds from the Tasmanians in comparison with anthropoids, the gap between the technology of both is not so great, and, most importantly, is determined by phylogenesis and culture. Given everything that is known about chimpanzees in captivity, the scientist concludes: "They are able to make and use all the means of Tasmanian material culture and use production by combining". In any case, the author believes, it is now impossible to understand the origin of culture without resorting to anthropoids, nor will primatologists understand the use of chimpanzee tools without information about nationalities that procure food for themselves.
Consonant with this and the opinion of B. Beck, who, after analyzing the numerous facts of the use and manufacture of chimpanzee tools, concluded that there were no qualitative differences in these hominoid actions until, unlike the higher monkeys, the ancestor of man did not use the tools on the basis of a different energy than that formed only from the processes of intrinsic metabolism and gravity.
It is curious that in forest fires, when fried, nuts or game are accidentally roasted, the chimpanzee correctly understands the use of fire and registers "cooked" food. W. McGrew believes that chimpanzees are the only ones of all anthropoids whose social group is based on the strong friendship of males. We have already mentioned the hunting of animals, the sharing of meat and the mutual assistance of relatives in these primates. In Gombe, where they are observed by J. Goodall, every fifth male became a leader thanks to the help of his elder brother.
According to observations of S. Brewer, chimpanzees were trained to wash themselves with water from the pelvis, using soap and then wiped themselves with a towel. Some monkeys showed an unusual interest in the fire. William was addicted to hot water, he quickly learned how to fill a kettle and warm it up. Chimpanzees Pooh learned to bask at the fire. When it became colder, he spent the morning hours lying on the cooling ashes, placing it around himself in the shape of a star-shaped nest.The observations of S. Brewer are very striking for the young male chimpanzee William, who liked coffee: "I was sitting near the hearth with a cup of coffee, chimpanzees were feeding on a tree next to the kitchen ... Taking the kettle carefully and keeping it away from myself, he went to the trunk. In a cup, already filled with milk for one third, he put two spoons of coffee and four spoonfuls of sugar and added there boiling water from the kettle, overflowing slightly over the edge ... The cup was very thin and too hot. Even as he tried to lift it up, William leaned over and began making incredible grimaces over coffee. He was impatient to try coffee, but he knew that the drink was still very hot. Then he scooped coffee with a spoon, brought it to his mouth and took a quick sip. The drink must have been still too hot - the chimpanzee shuddered involuntarily and dropped the spoon. I thought that now he would pour out all the coffee with vexation, but this did not happen. He looked around, picked up a few small pebbles and dropped them into a cup.
... He lowered the spoon into the coffee, prevented it and again tried to take a sip from the cup, but, lifting it to his lips, felt that the liquid was still hot. Then he went to the reservoir in which we stored the water, took a mouthful of cold water, went back to the cup and spit out water into it. The liquid poured over the edge, William quickly bent down and took a sip of some coffee, still not completely cooled, but apparently suitable for drinking. Then he took the cup, cautiously approached the bushes growing near the kitchen, sat down and began leisurely to drink. "
Also We Can Offer!
- Argumentative essay
- Best college essays
- Buy custom essays online
- Buy essay online
- Cheap essay
- Cheap essay writing service
- Cheap writing service
- College essay
- College essay introduction
- College essay writing service
- Compare and contrast essay
- Custom essay
- Custom essay writing service
- Custom essays writing services
- Death penalty essay
- Do my essay
- Essay about love
- Essay about yourself
- Essay help
- Essay writing help
- Essay writing service reviews
- Essays online
- Fast food essay
- George orwell essays
- Human rights essay
- Narrative essay
- Pay to write essay
- Personal essay for college
- Personal narrative essay
- Persuasive writing
- Write my essay
- Write my essay for me cheap
- Writing a scholarship essay