What animals and what is a human must reflect
To explain the need for a new level of reflection, we ask ourselves the question: what is the fundamental difference between the life ( activity ) animals and man ?
This difference lies in the way animals and humans live. All animals, regardless of the complexity of their behavior, adapt to existing living conditions. Their main task is to find and master the objects of needs in the existing conditions of life, i.e. in the situation in which they constantly live and work. And this situation should open to each animal as the object space of its own activity, where each object either acquires a biological sense, or becomes a guide in behavior, or acts in the form of situational, spatially located objects (background) among which behavior develops. Some objects become temporary auxiliary means of behavioral acts (branches, stones and other objects). Something an animal should be able to do from birth, something to learn in life, but his life always passes in the prevailing conditions of life (life) based on natural means of activity.
A person passes to a new way of life - creating conditions for his existence. Everything begins with the production of instruments of activity, which are not directly related to any need, and it goes to the production of objects of need, means and ways of satisfying them, as well as creating conditions for existence (home, pipeline, road, etc.). At the same time, people's relations to each other change and a new space of people's life is created - the space of society in which the normative relations created by the state and production (the subspace of normative relations) are asserted, and the moral or immoral relations of people to each other (subspace of moral, spiritual life) .
Naturally, a number of questions arise here.
• What new natural, especially brain, features make it possible to do this?
• Under what conditions are opportunities becoming a real human skill?
• What reasons require a person to move to a new way of life and a new level (depth, complexity, details, likelihood, etc.) of discovering the world for himself?
For us, the main thing now is to understand - what should be revealed to the animal in its activity and what should be in the controlling mechanism of human activity?
An animal for the success of its activities should open a situation of behavior that can be represented in the sensory sensory-perceptual image of the objective conditions of its activities. The success of the constructive activity of a person who produces what was not before his activity requires new special knowledge not only about the situation of action, but about the whole world and the laws of its construction that are used by man in his activity.
You can randomly find the item of need, create a new way to open a cage with a bait or get a high-suspended delicacy. But you can not accidentally make a bicycle or an atomic reactor. This requires special knowledge, a special project of the final product and intermediate results, and a special task is to do it. A person must first create an image of an object that is not yet in the world (a conscious goal), understanding why it is necessary.
As the creative activity of a person becomes collective, one must learn not only to take into account the activity of others, but also to subordinate their actions to the common plan of joint activity, understanding the significance of not only their actions, but also the actions of other people. And this means that a person must master his behavior and his psyche. Allocating activities that go from one activity to another, or simultaneously participate in the realization of several activities, makes a person understand only the value, but also the meaning of their and other people's actions. Such a person's activity can now only be arbitrary!
The need to build an image of the world, i.e. to get knowledge about the structure of the world and the laws of its functioning, requires a change both in the way of extracting knowledge, and in the way they are fixed.
The image of the situation (that is, the spatial field of actions with objects in it) is based on the interaction of the subject with the objects (S → O), more precisely, based on the results of the directed research activity of the subject with the object, i.e. on the basis of the results that give the criteria for constructing on the basis of a subjective sensory picture, object images of objects and relations between them in accordance with the requirements of the activity.
The image of the world can be built only on the basis of observations of the subject behind the results of the person-directed directed interactions of objects and, based on the results of their interaction, the solutions of the cognitive task about the properties of these objects (Figure 9.1).
Fig. 9.1. The scheme for obtaining data for building the image of the world:
O - objects; S - subject
If such a cognitive task does not arise, then no observations of the world and the interaction of objects will create an adequate image of the world.
But the results of solving a cognitive task can not be fixed in a sensory form, in sensory sensory language. Hence the need for a special language in which one can fix a conceptual knowledge of the world. This language allows you to store knowledge not only for yourself and yourself, but also outside of the person as a system of signs that have value for yourself and other people, to exchange them, unlike knowledge in sensory images that can not be stored outside the subject and directly transferred to another subject .
The content of understanding also changes. If an animal should understand the situation and the significance of its behavioral acts, as well as its natural language, and sometimes of a different kind, then the person must understand, first of all, the meaning of his and others' actions and understand the structure of the world (no matter how true, ideas about the world are always mythologized, because they are based on the limited personal experience of a person and the experience of the nearest environment.
To solve behavioral adaptive problems, it is enough for animals to have a sensory image of a situation in which individual properties of things, holistic objects and relations between them are presented. In a strict sense, this can not even be called knowledge of the environment, because the sensuous image is always one-sided and subjective; its task is not to give knowledge about the world, but to open to the subject the objective conditions of its field of operation and provide it with information about the availability of objects of need and about guidelines that allow servicing ready-made behaviors or creating new ones. Of course, the subject's capabilities are always greater than the requirements of the adaptive tasks of the species, and the animal can be taught with the help of a human to a new and unusual behavior that for the animal itself remains only a way (operation) in satisfying its needs. But the sensory image must provide him with a selection of the external visible, audible, generally perceived space of his biological life and the opportunity to find the necessary ways of behavior on the basis of orientation. This implies the ability of animals to understand the functional and biological meaning (meaning) of objects and as objects of need (food, enemy, partner), and as reference points in the situation of action, and as auxiliary tools, as well as understanding the values of the results of their activity.
It should also be possible to preserve personal experience of activity and use it in a new situation, which in turn involves the allocation in the psyche of two zones:
1) active functioning (here and now);
2) potential mental experience, which can pass from memory to the zone of actual work of the psyche (analogue of the focus of consciousness).
The creative activity of man can not be successful with such mental support. First of all, the ability to create images of objects that do not exist in the world should appear. It is not the representation of an object in its absence, but the construction of an image of an object with the desired properties, and an object that has never been before (a wheel, a shovel, a bow, a spear). For the sake of justice, it must be said that the first such objects were tools and were created in the action itself as auxiliary means, similar or copying the available objects, capable of becoming a temporary auxiliary tool. But further they begin to be reproduced intentionally and with the desired conceived properties.
In other words, goals appear not just as intermediate results of activity, but goals as products of creative activity and as an image of a new object for the Earth. And this image should become a model in the manufacture of the object. The first items, made from improvised material, did not require new knowledge and were actually examined in nature. But the transition to new materials (metals) has already required the creation of knowledge about the properties of new materials. With the increasing complexity of the production of new items, individual activity for acquiring knowledge is already becoming inadequate and deliberate collective activity is created to produce knowledge about the world (science).
The production of conceptual knowledge required also the means of fixing them-a new non-sensitive language, which turned out to be a language of communication, but not a natural language, but a new sign language created by people. But language can arise only on the basis of a common understanding for different people, it only means what a person understands. And now he must understand not the situation and his activity in it, but the device of the world, the invisible properties of things.
With the emergence of actions, it became necessary to understand not only the objective significance of the action as such (its subject content), but also the significance of the action for the exchange of its result (product) on the results of actions of other people in the collective activity of the community, and also understand the meaning of the action, in including as a means of influencing other people.
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