Integrated goal


• Basic concepts, categories and tools of organizational psychology;

• psychological phenomena associated with individual and group behavior of a person and relevant to his life in the organization;

• criteria for determining organizational and psychological problems and tasks related to group and team activities.

Know :

• Analyze the external and internal environment of the organization, as a source of organizational psychological problems;

• diagnose and solve organizational problems and tasks, determined by psychological factors;

• Identify the specifics of a person's mental functioning in a group, team, organization;

• Identify psychological problems in the analysis of specific organizational situations, offer methods relevant to the organizational culture and goals of the organization;

• use the systems of categories and methods necessary to solve organizational and psychological problems in the field of group and team work;

• find organizational and managerial decisions in production situations.

Own :

• the conceptual apparatus in the field of organizational psychology;

• Technologies of working with groups and teams, as well as with the personnel of the organization;

• the main technologies of the work of the organizational psychologist in the field of diagnosis and intervention in the field of activities of groups and teams;

• Interactive methods, psychological technologies, focused on personal growth of employees.

Working Group and Team Concept

Problems of group psychology occupy a special place in the system of psychological knowledge in connection with the collective character of human activity. Small group studies are triggered by practice requests, because the group is the key element of the micro environment that surrounds the person and has the greatest impact on her.

Often the terms group and command are used as synonyms. However, these concepts are not identical.

There are many definitions of a small group. So, in American psychology, a small group is defined as two or more persons who often interact with each other, affect each other for more than a few moments and perceive themselves as we . Domestic social psychologists define a small group as a set of freely united individuals, equally useful to each other, in the process of cooperative interaction satisfying personal needs and desires.

The group consists of a collection of individuals who share common norms, values ​​and ideals about what interests them, perceive the group as a source of satisfaction of their needs, are in cooperation and interdependence, are bound by a sense of solidarity and moral unity even outside of joint actions, its specific group culture. The group has a number of psychological characteristics. So, American social psychologists D. Cartwright and A. Zander define the group as a collection of individuals who:

1) often interact with each other;

2) define themselves as members of one group;

3) share common norms about what interests them;

4) participate in a unified role-sharing system;

5) identify themselves with the same objects and ideals;

6) perceive the group as a source of satisfaction;

7) are in cooperative interdependence;

8) coordinate actions with respect to the environment.

An active or working group is a small group that is primarily engaged in work, aimed at solving specific problems (winning a competition, collaborating on a project) and functions according to certain laws . When analyzing a small group, you need to remember two aspects of its existence:

is a business aspect that describes the attitude of team members to the task they need to perform (productivity factor);

- social aspect, i.e. social and emotional ties between members of the group, the attitude of members of the group to each other and their membership in it (a factor of trust and cohesion).

The second dichotomy is the formal and informal aspects of the group. In any group, one can distinguish both formal and informal levels of functioning. The formal level has to do with the rules and regulations. The formal structure is defined by the official distribution of responsibilities between team members, their interaction in the labor process (for example, the army structure). Informal level - this is the relationship that has developed in the process of labor interaction. It is determined by the psychological characteristics of the personality of the participants in the joint activity (professional and communicative skills, life experience, individual characteristics) and situational factors (for example, an urgent task can dramatically change the informal structure of the group).

The determinants of the emergence of a formal small (working) group are objective (demand) and subjective reasons (kinship, friendship, etc.). The determinants of the emergence of an informal group are interpersonal attraction and affiliation needs (to be with others, to be in a group).

The classification of small groups is based on three criteria:

1) the number of the group (hence, they allocate small, medium and large groups);

2) the time of existence of the group (distinguish between long-term and short-term groups);

3) structural integrity of the group (as a result, there are primary and secondary groups).

The size of the group affects the level of contacts between people, the nature of the activity, the structure of the group, the group

new behavior, dynamics of group processes and group efficiency.

As an example in Table. 6.1 we will give the differences between small and medium groups (according to LG Pochebut and IA Meijs).

Table 6.1

Differences between small and medium groups


Small group

Middle group


Dozens of people

Hundreds of people


Personal: getting to know each other on a personal level

Status role: familiarity at the status level


Real behavioral



Developed internal informal

Legally formalized (lack of developed informal structure)

Links in the process of work

Direct labor

Labor, mediated by the organization's official structure


Workers' Brigade, Laboratory Staff

Organization: all employees of the organization, enterprises, firms

The group can be either too small or too large to work with optimal efficiency. The minimum number of the group is 2-3 people, the maximum - 25-40 people. There is the notion of optimum controllability of the group, meaning the definition of the volume of the group, which is optimal for the successful management of it. The most manageable group is 5-9 people. With the increase in volume (especially over 12 people), the number of subgroups increases or "click" and, accordingly, the likelihood of opposing the decisions of the leader from the side of informal leaders of subgroups is increased, coordination of general group efforts becomes more difficult.

By the time of existence, small, medium and large groups can be either short-term or long-term. For example, a work team can be short-lived if they combine to perform one production assignment, or long-term, if people work for the same company in the same brigade for several years.

Based on the structural integrity of the group, primary and secondary groups are distinguished. The primary group is a structural subdivision of the organization, which does not decompose into further components, i.e. this is a small formal group (department, brigade, laboratory). The secondary group is the aggregate of primary small groups (enterprise, organization). Thus, an organization, an industrial enterprise, a commercial firm is an average, secondary, most often a long-term group.

The group has an appropriate structure, it determines the position of individuals in the group as members, their status (formal and informal) and role. The highest position in the hierarchy of the group is occupied by the leader, who has the greatest influence on the other members of the group.

The social status of a person is understood as the occupied position in a social group, which is determined by a system of mutual rights and duties. Social status is formed from the prestige of the profession and position, the level of education and income, the difficulty of achieving this status. One person can be a bearer of various statuses (student, unemployed), can occupy opposite statuses in relation to different people (for example, to be simultaneously the chief in his department and be subordinate to the head of the organization). Such a set of individual statuses is called a status set, in which it is always possible to identify the main status, which generally determines the way of life, work, behavior, etc. For example, the status of the president determines in many ways a whole set of social ties, his life.

A social role is a dynamic aspect of status, a set of rights and duties prescribed by the position of an individual in society, in a social group, and behavior that meets the expectations of others. A role is a normatively approved form of behavior expected from an individual occupying a certain position in the system of interpersonal and social relations. The characterization of the role also includes desires and goals, beliefs and feelings, social attitudes, values ​​and actions that are expected or attributed to a person occupying a certain position in the group/society.

If, taking a position, we allow ourselves to relax too much, go beyond the outlined framework, the surrounding people will quickly return us to their own circles with the help of sanctions - shaming, censuring, fining, denying benefits, etc. Sanctions is the mechanism by which the group returns its member on the way of fulfilling and observing social or group norms. Sanctions can be both prohibitive (in violation of norms), and incentive (with the correct and full compliance with the rules). However, the boundaries of the correct behavior is not as tough as it seems. Performing public functions, each of us has the right to realize his own style of playing the role, showing unique features of his personality.

People play not one, but several roles. Their range is determined by the number and variety of social groups in which a person is included, and its individual characteristics. A role-playing set is a collection of roles associated with one social status. For example, the status of a leader assumes the fulfillment of such roles as a mentor, educator, an organization representative in the external environment, etc.

Group role is the behavior expected from a person occupying a certain position in the group. Group roles can be formal (related to job duties) and informal (arising spontaneously). The characteristics of the role are:

1) the consistency of roles, their connection with each other (if you are acting as a leader, then you have ideas and expectations about how your deputy should behave);

2) the degree of clarity of roles (on the first day, something undefined for you may happen in your new job, even if you know the purpose for which you were hired);

3) the complexity of the roles (the role of the leader of the group is much more complex than the role of the buffoon at the drink).

Business and social aspects of group dynamics are applicable to roles. You can select:

1) target roles - behavior that contributes to the achievement of group goals (initiator, developer, informer, idea generator, coordinator, critic, activator);

2) social roles - behavior oriented toward supporting others, serving feelings and attitudes of members of the group (instigator, assistant, harmonizer, guard);

3) individualistic roles - behavior that has a disruptive and distracting effect that hinders the effective work of the group (aggressor, blocker, dominator, seeking recognition and seeking self-disclosure, constantly requiring attention to themselves).

Role behavior in a group can lead to role conflicts in workgroups.

The group goes through certain stages in its development, beginning with the emergence and ending with the disintegration. Domestic psychologists believe that the group evolves and passes a series of qualitative stages characterizing its socio-psychological maturity. The level of development of the group is judged by organizational unity, psychological (intellectual, emotional, strong-willed) unity, preparedness of the group, direction of activity.

Team is a group that has reached the highest level of maturity of its socio-psychological characteristics. In the team, each member of the group recognizes themselves as part of the whole. The overall goal is fascinating and meaningful for everyone, the group is persistent in moving towards the goal. The self-government body is authoritative and respected. Unanimity of opinions, mutual assistance, mutual assistance, aspiration to empathy of phenomena and events, high moral standards are characteristic. In the relationship - friendliness and support, each member of the group has a sense of security. The ways of resolving conflicts are reasonable, the criticism is constructive and is carried out with benevolent positions. For members of the team is characterized by high satisfaction with the group, difficulties and setbacks are overcome. Thus, the collective is a group of people who carry out joint activities and achieve the final result on the basis of harmonization of individual, group and social goals, interests and values ​​(Yu. P. Platonov, 2007).

In foreign psychology, the development of the group is seen as progress in stages. Thus, the model of B. Takmena (Table 6.2) describes the dynamics of the group process based on accounting for two spheres of group activity: business (solving group problems) and interpersonal (development of group structure). In each of these spheres, four successive stages are assumed.

Table 6.2

Model B. Takmena

In the field of interpersonal activity

In the business area

- the stage of verification and dependence (orientation of group members in the nature of each other's actions and the search for mutually acceptable interpersonal behavior in the group);

- orientation in the task (search by members of the group for the optimal way of solving the problem);

- the stage of internal conflict (violation of interaction and lack of unity between members of the group);

- an emotional response to the requirements of the task (the opposition of the members of the group to the requirements of the content of the task due to the discrepancy of personal intentions of individuals with the requirements of the task);

- stage of development of group cohesion of the post (gradual harmonization of relations, disappearance of interpersonal conflicts);

- open exchange of relevant interpretations (maximum information exchange, allowing partners to penetrate deeper into each other's intentions and offer alternative interpretation of information);

- the stage of functional-role correlation (the formation of the role structure of the group)

- decision making (constructive attempts to successfully solve the problem)

In addition to these stages, there is the fifth stage of termination of activities - the curtailment of relations in both areas of group activity, the disbanding of the team.

This model is used in organizational psychology and in the analysis of team building.

The command is more than a simple group of individuals. The term command was formulated by the practice of effective management and, as a rule, was used to designate a small group with a pronounced target orientation, intensive interaction of members and high productivity. In the literature, you can find different definitions of the team. For example, a team is a cohesive group or a work collective. Indeed, the team is a group of high-level development. Among the parameters of the team, the most similar to the command characteristics are the integration (interconnectedness and interdependence of the members of the team), the structuredness (clarity and concreteness of the mutual distribution of functions, rights and duties, responsibility among the members of the collective), organization (orderliness, compilation, subordination to a certain order of joint activities) , motivation (active, interested and effective attitude to joint activities). At the same time, the interpretation of the team, in comparison with the concept of the collective, is more realistic, pragmatic and devoid of ideological labels.

It is necessary to distinguish a group of people formally united for performing related work (working group), and a team capable of self-organization, self-management and development (Table 6.3).

Table 6.3

Differences between workgroup and team




The narrow task is set, the general goals are not clarified

Accepting all the goals and strategy to achieve them

Participation in work

Executing job descriptions and instructions

Active position, focus on result, personal responsibility



Strict distribution of roles, positions, duties

Separation of competences. Flexible structure. Role rotation


Administration, the presence of a formal leader leader

Leadership based on competence and trust, mentoring, help and support



Basically, the orders and decisions passed by the majority

Effective decision-making procedures based on trust and mutual benefit


Hiding, hiding, ignoring

Recognition, intellectual competition, effective resolution: "we are on the one side of the barricade, and the problem is with the other"


Closedness, avoidance of criticism, the principle of "not sticking out"

Trust, freedom, initiative


Through a formal leader. Service correspondence

Openness. Confidence in each other and mutual respect


Stereotype, work by rules

Flexibility and adaptability. Continuous improvement and growth of competencies. Disclosure of creativity




According to RM Belbin, people can work as a team, not being members of a working group. Conversely, professionals can enter into one working group, in fact, without forming a team. "The idea of ​​the team is," writes RM Belbin, "that its members, on the basis of the division of labor, form a unified working structure that presupposes and reflects the contribution of an individual member of the team that he will contribute to the achievement of the common goal."

Team - this is a small number of people (a possible volume of 2 to 25 people, but usually not more than 10) with complementary skills, connected with a common goal, striving for common goals , sharing the responsibility for their achievement.

Another definition says that command - is a group of people (usually 5-7 people) with common goals, complementary skills, a high level of interdependence, Separating responsibility for the final result, capable of changing the functional-role structure, i.e. perform any intra-group roles. This definition emphasizes three characteristics inherent in all commands:

1) interdependence (each member of the team contributes to the overall work and depends on the work of everyone, all members of the team share information with each other, are equal participants in the activity and have the ability to influence each other);

2) shared responsibility (responsibility is understood and shared by all, commitment and trust are the basis of team accountability);

3) result, the responsibility for which is shared by all participants.

Domestic team-building specialists define the team as a group of people that are mutually complementary and mutually substituting each other in the course of achieving common results using a special form of joint activity that is based on a well-thought-out positioning of participants , who have a coordinated vision of the situation and strategic goals of the team and who have established procedures for interaction.

The most significant features of the team are:

- a common vision or an identical and accurate understanding of each other's aspirations;

- complementarity in functions and in the distribution of roles;

- the ability to react quickly to changes;

- effective communication and harmony;

- cohesion;

- the ability to motivate team members to perform certain actions.

The distinctive features of the team are the following characteristics. Team members consider themselves to be part of a group that does some work to achieve a specific goal. The objectives of the enterprise, the team and individual employees are known. Team members, I feel competent in my work, perform tasks independently and under my responsibility. In the team there are: a balance between effective work and cooperation of people, a culture of open communication, a willingness to help, a constructive resolution of conflicts. A good team is open to the outside world and cooperates constructively with other teams.

An important characteristic of the team is the high professionalism of the group. Team members must have important applied skills: technical or functional skills, decision-making and problem-solving skills and interpersonal skills, i.e. build effective relationships with other people, effectively using a variety of communication tools.

The criterion for the formed team is the ability of the group to analyze its activities and find internal resources for development and overcoming difficulties.

You can distinguish between different types of teams that differ among themselves depending on the nature of the activity and functions, the goal, the level of development and the subculture. So, depending on the goal you can identify two types of commands:

1) functional, which, in turn, is divided into consultative and expert (advisory council, review board) and production (production team, maintenance team);

2) creative, which are subdivided into design (research team, planning team) and acting (sports team, theatrical company, ambulance team).

Depending on the type of activity, three types of commands are distinguished:

1) teams involved in the preparation of recommendations;

2) production teams;

3) management teams.

Each of these commands can be at one of the following levels of development of group activity, depending on the team spirit, the effectiveness of interaction between members of the group:

- a working group (in which participants interact with each other, seeking to achieve their own goal);

is a pseudo-team (where participants act as if they can or should achieve significantly greater results than a normal group, but they do not have a common goal and task, the results of the pseudo-team are low, as there is no favorable environment for revealing the potential of each);

- a potential team (a group facing a common task, but lacks an enthusiastic leader and mastermind, infecting with enthusiasm and dedication when doing a common cause);

- a real team (a small group of like-minded people with an optimal number of up to 12 people who solve a common problem and have complementary skills and qualities that share responsibility);

- a highly effective team or a team of high achievements, which meets not only all the requirements of the team, but in addition to this is interested in that each of the participants in the course of teamwork fully revealed its potential and achieved maximum success.

Based on the forms of subcultures of management teams, T. Yu. Bazarov distinguishes such types of groups as "combine", "click", "circle", "command". This division is based on the following factors: the type of joint activity or type of task, the organizational and cultural context of the existence of the team (external and internal), the peculiarities of the personal style of interaction between its leader and leader with other members of the group.

It is also advisable to divide the teams into three categories:

1) temporary teams (production/project teams) - focused on achieving a specific goal and disintegrate after completion of work;

2) standing teams (departments/groups) - structure and distribute the work that needs to be done in a certain period of time;

3) the whole enterprise as a team - all employees of the organization, working together on the client, who feel themselves to be the "creators of services"; and controlling the success of the firm.

In the modern literature on teambuilding, it is mainly about two types of groups: management teams (management teams) and project teams.

The management team includes the first persons of the organization and is at the highest levels of the organizational hierarchy. Teams created at the middle and lower levels of the organization are called self-managed teams (these are small groups of people who are authorized to make decisions about planning, implementing and evaluating day-to-day work).

Project teams are formed for specific tasks at any level of management and can include both middle and lower-level managers and specialists. The versions of project teams include:

- teams of specialists, consisting of specialists of the same profile who meet regularly for joint study of work issues;

- interfunctional teams that unite people performing different functions to work on common tasks;

- virtual commands consisting of members, united by electronic means of communication;

Reform teams created for organizational change.

Also one of the possible classifications of commands can be based on the functional range and interchangeability of members (Table 6.4).

Table 6.4

Classification of teams by functional range and member interchangeability

Functional Activity Range

Interchangeability of team members




Commands for solving problems

Professional Teams


Cross-Functional Commands Change Commands

Management commands Self-managed commands

The team, like any group, develops and passes in its development several stages or stages. Based on B. Takmen's model, taking into account the functioning of groups in real social practice, T. Yu. Bazarov outlines the following stages of command formation.

1. Adaptation is the ethane of mutual information and analysis of tasks, the search for the optimal method of solving the problem. At the level of interpersonal relations, the members of the group are guided by the nature of each other's actions and are aimed at finding mutually acceptable behavior in the group. The effectiveness of the team at this stage is low, as its members are still little known and not confident in each other.

2. Grouping is a stage characterized by the creation of associations (subgroups) by sympathies and interests. Due to the discrepancy of personal motivation and the goals of group activities, the members of the group oppose the requirements imposed on them by the content of the task. There is an emotional response of the group members to the requirements of the task, which leads to the formation of subgroups. When grouping begins to form a group identity at the level of individual subgroups that form the first intragroup norms.

3. Co-operation is a stage where awareness of the desire to work on a task occurs. Characterized by a more open and constructive communication, there are elements of group solidarity and cohesion. There is a formed group with a distinct sense of "We". The lead at this stage is the instrumental activity.

4. Rationing activities - the stage at which principles of group interaction are developed. The sphere of emotional activity becomes dominant, the meaning of the relationship "I am You" increases, the personal relationships become especially close. At this stage, there is no intergroup activity, which can lead to the isolation of a cohesive, well-prepared organizationally and psychologically grouped group from others and turn it into a group-autonomy, characterized by self-interest and egoism.

5. Functioning is the decision-making stage, characterized by constructive attempts to successfully solve the problem. This is the stage of functionally role-relatedness, i.e. the role structure of the team is formed, due to which the group task is played. The group becomes open to the manifestation and resolution of the conflict. At this stage, the group is distinguished by a high level of preparedness, organizational and psychological unity, characteristic of the command subculture.

Thus, a small (including a working) group is an important component of the social life of any organization. People tend to enter into a group in order for its members to feel belonging to something, to get some information from each other, in order to receive approval from someone, to achieve certain goals (individual or group). Under the command, you can understand a small group that unites people who are jointly doing a common cause. Teams can be effective and ineffective. In a highly effective team there is a clear understanding of the goal, clear positioning of roles, complementarity of competences, established communications between team members, responsibility to each other. The command method of organizing activities is inherent:

- the coordinated vision of the tasks facing the organization and the system of distribution of responsibility for their successful resolution;

- the formation of an orientation toward a common and clear goal;

- the distribution of roles and positions in order to achieve maximum dedication;

- ensuring maximum inclusion of each employee in the workflow;

- ensuring joint development of solutions;

- focus on efficiency and situational leadership;

- generation of new ideas and ways to solve problems;

- development of external relations and establishment of necessary contacts with other people and organizations;

- checking and evaluating the performance of the work.

A small (working) group and a team for a leader who deals with a company, a public association, a party is an essential condition for its activities. Therefore, he needs knowledge about the influence of the group on the personality, the characteristics of group dynamics, procedures for collective decision-making, processes that occur during direct interaction between people. In addition, the manager should have an idea of ​​how to organize the interaction of people in the working group in order to effectively implement their potential in accordance with the goals of the organization, i.e. about the process of forming a team.

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