Working with difficult schoolchildren - Handbook of practical...

Working with difficult schoolchildren

The word difficult at school they are constantly repeating: "difficult", "difficult" families, "difficult" children. Attention is drawn to the crisis state of society, families, the low level of humanization of education and upbringing; social, economic, biomedical and other reasons of the "difficult" are emphasized; childhood. Often this obscures the problem of pedagogical duty and competence, since an appeal to the causes of a global scale lowers the situation to the level of pedagogical pessimism. However, fortunately, in every school there are psychologists and teachers whose experience is a confirmation that pedagogical means can achieve a lot. The path of prevention difficult childhood, the possibility of solving the problem by natural pedagogical means seems to be the most humane and rational. Today, when pedagogical problems are traditionally "discarded" on the psychological service, it is important to remember that in dealing with difficult children one psychologist, even the most wonderful, will not make the weather. We need other qualified specialists, so that everyone in his place can find himself, become a master.

Pedagogical neglect consists in the underdevelopment, lack of education, lack of education of the child, lagging behind his development from his own abilities, age requirements caused by pedagogical reasons and subject to correction by pedagogical means.

The delay in the development of a rule-like behavior, inability to obey the requirements of the corresponding activity (game, educational, labor) eventually grows into indiscipline, unwillingness to reckon with social norms. Depending on the quality, duration and extent of adverse effects, negative settings may:

a) be superficial, easily removable;

b) take root and demand a long and persistent re-education;

c) supplemented with secondary, tertiary flaws.

In this regard, there is a problem of early prevention of antisocial behavior, which should begin with the prevention of pedagogical neglect. The conditions for the successful elimination of pedagogical neglect are:

• mastering the system of knowledge about the causes, signs and manifestation of pedagogical neglect;

• mastering the methodology of its diagnosis and prevention based on continuity and interaction;

• Creating an atmosphere of benevolence, mutual respect and mutual demand between teachers and parents, the general background of positive relationships in the families of pedagogically neglected children, kindergarten collectives, schools.

The work of the school psychologist should first of all be aimed at the humanization of the pedagogical process, the development of a common culture and a culture of communication, an empathic understanding as the basis for a dialogue with the "difficult" pupils, and the priceless personal and optimistic attitude of teachers towards them. Several schemes will help in this work.

Scheme I. Causes of pedagogical neglect

For a schoolboy

For a junior high school student

For a teenager

Small circle of communication, family factors, difficulties in mastering the main leading activity (game)

Communication with the teacher, other school factors, difficulties in mastering the main leading activity (teaching)

Personally significant factors: environmental adaptation, self-assertion in the process of communication, learning, difficulties in mastering the main leading activity (work)

Scheme II. Elimination of pedagogical neglect

General Methods

Special Methods

Creating a favorable psychological microclimate in the family, kindergarten, school. Elimination of emotional and psychological overloads

The organization of the child's success in leading activities (play, training, work), guiding his behavior by reliance on positive qualities, forming his relationships with peers through inculcating life skills and activities in the team, overcoming shortcomings, gaps, disharmonious intellectual, moral and emotional development

Scheme III. Prevention of pedagogical neglect

Communication Management Techniques

Behavior Management Technique

Methods for equalizing the child's abilities

Methods for organizing leading activities

Changing the position of the child in the peer group

Formation of individual experience of behavior

Overcoming developmental shortcomings

Formation of interest, skills, skills, development of activity

Scheme IV. Pedagogical neglect



Intellectual development

Emotional - volitional sphere



Teachers, psychologists


health workers

Social Educator

Health Teacher

Environment, family, immediate surroundings

Scheme V. The general scheme of working with children who have initial signs and manifestations of pedagogical neglect

1. The general level of teaching and educational work in the classroom (high, medium, low).

2. The nature of interpersonal relations in the class is class passport, sociometry.

3. Identifying children with signs of pedagogical neglect - a class passport, a risk group.

4. Determination of the main directions for overcoming pedagogical neglect is a class passport.

5. The study of the positive features of the personality, signs and manifestations of pedagogical neglect, the causes that cause them, is a pedagogical map of the dynamics of development.

6. The formulation and implementation of the tasks of a differentiated approach to pedagogically launched children - an individual work plan.

7. The nature of the attitude of teachers towards pupils: active - positive, passive - positive, passive - negative, active - negative, unstable, indefinite.

Scheme VI. Analysis of the developmental features of the child

No. п/п


Main content


Child profile and basic family information


Features of child development (before and after birth)

Presence of risk factors in maternal and child health


The state of the child's health at the time of the survey

The presence of injuries and operations, the incidence of diseases. Cases of hospitalization and registration with specialists. Features of sleep and nutrition


Child rearing

Where, who was brought up, who looked after the child. When the child was placed in a kindergarten, how it got used, how the relationship developed, whether there were complaints of educators. Whether there were sharp changes in the situation, long, frequent separation from parents. The reaction of the child to them


Child development in infancy and early childhood

Features of motor development, timing of the main sensorimotor reactions. The general emotional tone. The development of speech. Attitude to relatives and strangers. Activity and curiosity. Neatness and self-service skills. Difficulty of behavior. Favorite games and activities


Child development in preschool age

Favorite activities, games. Does he like to paint at what age? He likes to listen to fairy tales, learn poems, watch TV. Can she read. How to learn when. As developed physically. Which hand is leading. Does it have domestic responsibilities? Relations with peers. Relations with family members. Typical conflicts. Actual prohibitions. Features of character. Fears. Difficulties. Complaints


Child development in junior school age

At what age did I go to school, did I adapt easily? Type of school attended. Does the group visit the extended day. Was there a change of teachers, schools. Progress, favorite and unloved subjects, doing homework. Relations with classmates, with teachers. Participation in the life of the class. Hobbies. Place of play at leisure of the child. Household duties. Degree of independence. Conflicts

According to experts, pedagogical neglect involves three components:

1. Deviations from the norm in behavior and learning activity (ineptness, inefficiency, difficulty), caused by the fact that the individual experience of "difficult" children (everyday and other skills, knowledge and skills, their application) is inadequate, distorted, contradictory.

2. The lag in the development of memory, thinking, imagination, emotionally - strong-willed, moral qualities and personality qualities. They are layered by some age characteristics, such as acute self-esteem, mood instability, fatigue, conflict.

3. Deviations, distortions and contradictions in relations "difficult" children to themselves and their abilities, peers, teachers, parents, others. All this greatly complicates and distorts their learning activities and behavior. It is no accident that teachers define pedagogical neglect as unpreparedness for school, underdevelopment, illiteracy.

Forms of pedagogical neglect

The problem of pedagogical neglect can appear in various forms, have different causes, consequences and a locus of complaint. Specialist in correctional and pedagogical work with children with developmental disabilities, Elvira Borisovna Zasedatelyeva singled out three forms of pedagogical neglect.

The first form - the unformed elements and skills of learning activities.

Reason : individual features of intellectual development, pedagogical neglect.

Corollary: poor academic performance.

The locus of complaint: poor performance in all subjects, poor reading, math lagging, poor memory, inattention, absent-mindedness, uncertainty, "dreaming" at lessons, deuces in writing, is afraid to answer, although he knows the self-doubt, the length of the preparation of lessons, anxiety, low self-esteem, passivity, pessimism, disappointment in school, admissions, school breaks, does not reach school.

The second form - the unformed motivation of the exercise, the focus on other (not corresponding to age) activities.

Causes : infantilism of education, hyperope, unfavorable factors that destroyed positive motivation (school interpersonal relations, inadequate evaluation of training activities, etc.).

Consequence : poor performance and behavior against a sufficiently high level of cognitive abilities.

Locus of complaint: anxiety about individually - personal qualities such as sluggishness, inertness, disorganization, fatigue, non-communication, shyness, pugnacity, stubbornness, aggression, bitterness, cruelty, fears, falsity.

The third form is the inability to arbitrarily regulate behavior, attention, learning activity.

Reason : features of family education (indulging or dominant hyperprotection), the same type of education in kindergarten and primary school.

Consequence: disorganization, inattention, dependence on an adult, a statement, a communication disorder, poor academic performance.

The locus of complaint: anxiety about the characteristics of behavior, learning activity and communication of the child with peers and adults, lack of sensitivity, isolation, lack of friends, inability to coexist with peers, poor relations with teachers, complaints about prejudice (teased at school, beat in the classroom, poor relations between children in the family), reluctance to play with peers, craving for "bad" children, misunderstanding of the child, etc.

Scheme VII. The procedure for examining the child in all forms of school disadaptation (to clarify the diagnosis)

1. It is checked whether the cognitive processes (the block of diagnostic techniques for verbal and nonverbal intellect, memory, attention, the level of speech development, if necessary - manual praxis) are not violated.

2. The child's learning ability (assignments with adult dosed care), the formation of the elements of learning activity, the internal plan of action, arbitrary regulation of behavior are checked.

3. Features of educational motivation of the child, level of claims, interests are analyzed.

4. The learning skills of the child are necessarily checked, his notebooks on United States, mathematics, and drawing are viewed. Samples are given for reading, writing, solving problems.

5. The emotional component of underachieving is revealed: how the child relates to poor (satisfactory) assessments, which receives typical help from adults - parents, teachers; whether there is a field of activity that makes it possible to compensate for the failure in training. If possible, the entire interpersonal relationship of the child is restored.

6. The typical types of parental support for the child in learning activity are found out: who is engaged, how many, what are the methods of help, what is the overall style of family upbringing.

7. The history of the case being consulted is studied, a detailed analysis of the behavior history, the parents' own analysis of the consulted situation is done.

thematic pictures

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