This study examined the dissimilarities in the level of Eros among young adults and more mature adults and the relationship between the level of Eros and life satisfaction on 120 Malaysians, comprising 60 younger individuals and 60 older adults. The members chock-full a consent form and were each given the SWLS and LAS-SF questionnaires. Results discovered that age acquired no significant romantic relationship with the amount of Eros and this the higher the level of Eros significantly contributed to lower degree of life satisfaction. The study hypothesis were that more younger adults fall in the group of Eros compared to older parents and the bigger the amount of Eros, the higher the amount of life satisfaction. Both research hypothesis weren't supported.
Keywords: Eros, men and women, life satisfaction
Love Types and Life Satisfaction: Younger Parents vs. Older Adults
Almost everybody nowadays would experience slipping in love at one point in his / her life. It could happen when they are young, which are between the age ranges 18 to 30, or when they are much more mature, between 31 to 60 years old. Love is defined as a strong sense of affection for someone or maybe it's affection with some degree of sexual interest for someone (Hornby, 2005). Adult on the other palm is thought as "a completely grown person who is legally in charge of his action" (Hornby, 2005, p. 20). The famous theory on love types was unveiled by John Lee (1973). He categorised love types into six sizes known as Eros, Pragma, Ludus, Storge, Mania and Agape. Regarding to Aron & Westbay (1996), Eros enthusiasts tend to be loving and adoring, Pragma fans are natural, Ludus lovers enjoy flirting, Storge lovers bottom part their relationship on camaraderie, Mania addicts are domineering while Agape enthusiasts portray unconditional love. You will find two divisions in John Lee's theory which are the Main Styles and the Extra Styles. Corresponding to Lee (1973), Eros, Ludus and Storge are the Major Styles, while Mania, which really is a blend of Eros and Ludus, Pragma, which is a combination of Ludus and Storge, and Agape, which is the combo of Eros and Storge are the Secondary Styles. Clyde Hendrick and Susan S. Hendrick developed Adam Lee's theory further by coming up with a level called The Love Frame of mind Scale which helps in categorizing lovers in a marriage into various categories as identified under Lee's theory. The Love Attitude Level is a multi-dimensional level that measures six different ideas or love styles (Hendrick & Hendrick, 1989). It is also said that The Love Frame of mind Scale is regarded as to have a direct link to people's general conception on love (Aron & Westbay). This study aims to recognize whether the percentage of younger parents falling in the group of Eros is higher than of the more mature adults.
There are few research workers who think that the Eros enthusiast is known as somebody who is romantic, ardent and who helps bring about intimacy in a romance (e. g. , Neto, 2005; Baur & Crooks, 2007). Matching to Hendrick (2004), the Eros fan is loyal, completely committed and in a position to control the level of the relationship. More younger men and women show up in the group of Eros in comparison to older adults. Based on a report conducted on 57 seeing lovers (87% White, 11% Hispanic with 43% of these aged 19, 30% of these aged of 20 to 22 and 19% of these older 23-30) in a university by Hendrick, Hendrick, & Adler (1988), figured college-aged young adults have an increased relationship to Eros, Mania and Agape compared to Storge and Pragma as the relationship assessment measures used had a solid positive relationship with Eros. In another research involving 700 school students, it was discovered that a majority of them were Eros type lovers (Tzeng, Woolridge & Campbell, 2003). This research was done on a big number of samples, thus the conclusions can be well substantiated. Regarding to Knox, Schacht, & Zusman (1999), young adults are more likely to believe in "love at first look" and "love conquers all" than elderly adults. These youthful adults fantasize they can overcome every task in a romantic relationship with love. The analysis by Knox et al. , 1999 on 184 undergraduates from East Carolina College or university university students where 68% of these were women and 32% of them were men with a median era of 19 regarding their views on love supports my stance that more more youthful adults land in the group of Eros in comparison to older people as other love types develop with era and experience.
On the other palm, there's a review conducted by Montgomery and Sorell (1997) on 250 adults consisting of college-aged, maried people with (young and teenagers) and without child, concluding that both more radiant adults and elderly adults can be labeled as Eros type fans. Regarding to Wang and Nguyen (1995), in a study regarding 255 people covering all age ranges from teens to the older men and women (teenagers' mean time was 15. 22 years, more youthful men and women' mean years was 25. 98 years, the middle-aged adults' mean time was 39. 56 years and more mature men and women' mean years was 66. 73 years) from america, Eros is not simply meant for more youthful adults but for adults of all age groups too. They researched the level of passionate love completely adulthood to learn whether passion in a marriage reduces as time passes but they found out that age has no significant romance with excited love.
Does love type relate to life satisfaction? This study also targets the link between love types and life satisfaction. The bigger the amount of Eros, the higher the level of satisfaction in life. Diener & Suh, 1997 (as cited in Civitci, Civitci, & Fiyakali, 2009) talked about that life satisfaction is about how happy and satisfied a person feels about his life from all angles. In conclusion, this is of life satisfaction varies in one kind of personality to the other. Satisfaction in life can be assessed using the Satisfaction with Life Range (SWLS) created by Ed Diener, Robert A. Emmons, Randy J. Larsen and Sharon Griffin in the year 1985. Matching to Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin (1985), the SWLS is a worldwide measure that evaluates someone's subjective life satisfaction. It is a five-item questionnaire where it steps the balance between what a person intends to attain and what he has recently achieved in his life. It is also known to be one dimensional and it targets a person's mental well-being. This range can be used to assess adults who are experiencing conflicts in their lives. Matching to Baur & Crooks (2007), life satisfaction in a romantic relationship means the sensation to be happy and content with what you and your partner are currently experiencing being along. He also claims that Eros lover, being loving and continuously considering sexual fulfilment helps to keep the magic alive throughout the partnership. Hendrick et al. (1988), pointed out that Eros buffs, being intimate and expressive in communicating their thoughts minimise issues and help to raise the satisfaction in a romance thus, resulting in higher life satisfaction. Since Eros is known as a passionate type of love that uncovers high self-worth, it is the love style that has close linkages to satisfaction. In addition they declare that it has a positive effect on relationship satisfaction. To further support that the greater the Eros type enthusiast a person is, the higher the likelihood of life satisfaction, there are two measures of satisfaction known as Dyadic Adjustment Size (DAS) and Relationship Diagnosis Scale (RAS). Regarding to Hendrick et al. (1988), the higher the readings in these scales, the higher the satisfaction in life. These scales have strong positive correlation with Eros. Hendrick et al. (1988) also claimed that the satisfaction in a romantic relationship relies upon how open a person is with his spouse and the loyalty in their romantic relationship. In addition, they also stated that Eros has positive correlation with satisfaction of both celebrations in a romantic relationship. All of these factors lead towards higher life satisfaction for a person. Corresponding to Hendrick and Hendrick (1989) who conducted a report over 807 students (466 guys, 341 females, 41% of these aged 18 or below, 29% of them aged 19 and 30% of them aged 20 and above, typically solitary students, and White-non-Hispanic) from University of Miami, Eros has a good relationship with Secure Connection Style. Quite simply, the higher the level of Eros, the bigger the level one is able to have interaction easily with others without having any concerns about being neglected or getting too attached to a person. They also stated that Eros is positively correlated with Stenberg's Triangular Theory of Love Level developed in the year 1986. Under this size, there are three components, being Intimacy, which is the closeness founded between two associates, Passion, which is the sensation of fervour at the sight of the spouse, and Commitment, which is the faithfulness and seriousness in a romance. Predicated on Hendrick and Hendrick, the Relationship Ranking Form created by Davis in the year 1982 has a six factor-model. It includes Viability, which is whether you see the spouse suitable. Intimacy, where you identify whether you know the person completely including their positive and negative sides. Interest, which links back to you to whether the partner is definitely on your mind. Care, which means whether you can rely upon your partner in times of need. Satisfaction, which is about how much you indicate to your partner. Lastly, Issue in terms of uneasiness and constant disagreements in the partnership. Regarding to Hendrick and Hendrick, this scale has an optimistic marriage with Eros relating all the factors aside from the Issue factor, thus leading to higher life satisfaction. In addition, based on Hendrick and Hendrick, Eros has an optimistic relationship with Passionate Love Size that originated by Hatfield and Sprecher in the entire year 1986. This size evaluates the enthusiasm that one seems for their partner that there would be little or nothing that would make sure they are more pleased than to be with their spouse. They also described that the bigger this dimension is the more satisfying their romantic relationship is and this plays a part in higher life satisfaction.
On the other hand, regarding to Hendrick and Hendrick (1989), Eros is negatively related to the Avoidant Attachment Item, which actions a person's failure to trust another person and feels uneasy when someone will try to be intimate. As mentioned previously, Eros is negatively correlated with Davis's Issue subscale (Hendrick & Hendrick). Aside from love satisfaction, self-esteem is also one of the predictors of life satisfaction. Regarding to Hong and Giannakopoulos (1994) who studied on 1749 parents (17- 40 years old) in Sydney, self-esteem contributes 21. 4% and melancholy contributes 9. 7% of the variance in life satisfaction. Matching to Hendrick et al. (1988), there are other important factors that lead to higher life satisfaction such as commitment, self-respect and sexual behaviour. As the majority of the existing research was done on White, Hispanic and Black people, thus this research on the Malaysian test is important.
In view, that most young adults are passionate buffs and this Eros enthusiasts are quite happy with their romance thus increasing their life satisfaction, it can therefore be predicted that younger adults show up in the category of Eros in comparison to older adults which the higher the level of Eros type fan one is, the higher the level of life satisfaction.
Participants was required to fill up a set of questionnaire consisting Satisfaction with Life Range (SWLS) and the Love Attitude Scale (LAS-SF). It really is a survey based mostly non-experimental study. This analysis has two hypotheses with time (younger parents or older people) as the unbiased variable while level of Eros was the dependent variable for the first hypothesis. On the other hand, for the second hypothesis degree of Eros was the independent variable while degree of life satisfaction was the centered variable.
The questionnaires were administered to 120 members (60 young adults and 60 old adults) typically around Klang Valley and Ipoh. 48 of these were males and 71 of these were females (1 absent data). The individuals were asked to select which age group that they fall in, whether as more youthful adults (18 years to 30 years) or as older adults (31 years of age to 60 years of age). As for the younger adult group, the majority of them were Sunway University College students since it was convenient for perform the study with willing participants. While for the old adults, members from places like Kuala Lumpur, Ipoh and Subang replied the questionnaires because it was convenient to spread the questionnaires to participants from bigger locations in view of the available mindedness to answer the various types of questions in the questionnaires, including some questions that probed to their personal lives. The members were asked (as seen in Table 1) on their gender (Female or male), relationship status (Single, Inside a Marriage, Married, Widowed, Separated or Divorced) and ethnicity (Malay, Chinese, Indian or others). Besides that, they were also asked on the highest degree of education achieved (Primary School, Secondary University, Diploma or comparable, Bachelors Level or equal, or Postgraduate Level either Masters or Doctor level) and lastly on their faith (Islam, Chinese, Hinduism, Christian or others).
Variable N %
18-30 yrs. old (younger adults) 60 50. 00
31-60 years old (older adults) 60 50. 00
Male 48 40. 00
Female 71 59. 20
Missing 1 0. 80
Single 45 37. 50
In A Romance 26 21. 70
Married 46 38. 30
Widowed 2 1. 70
Separated 1 0. 80
Divorced 0 0. 00
Malay 9 7. 50
Chinese 56 46. 70
Indian 48 40. 00
Others 7 5. 80
Highest Level Of Education Achieved
Primary Institution 0 0. 00
Secondary University 22 18. 30
Diploma Or Equivalent 35 29. 20
Bachelors Degree Or Equal 54 45. 00
Postgraduate Degree (Get good at Or Doctor Level) 9 7. 50
Islam 10 8. 30
Chinese 27 22. 50
Hinduism 41 34. 20
Christian 39 32. 50
Others 2 1. 70
Missing 1 0. 80
The demographic section provided basic home elevators the individuals. The Satisfaction with Life Size (SWLS) is a 5-item size that refers to the cognitive-judgemental aspects of standard life satisfaction where the participants were advised to analyze and assess their satisfaction in life independently aided by the SWLS. Those questions were answered utilizing a likert scale beginning with report 1 that identifies "strongly disagree" to credit score 7 that refers to "strongly consent" to the claims in SWLS in reference to the members' life. The way SWLS is obtained is by summing up the full total scores which range from 5 to 35. The higher the total of the scores means that there surely is a higher level of life satisfaction. A good example of a question from SWLS is "Generally in most ways, my life is near ideal. " Appendix B reveals an example of the SWLS.
The next set of questionnaires directed at the participants was the Love Frame of mind Scale - Brief Form (LAS-SF). The LAS-SF scale contain 24 items that measures what kind of a enthusiast the participant is discussing their current marriage, their past marriage or the way they plan their future romance to be. This range was developed based on John Lee's theory of love types. Those 24 items were divided in line with the 6 love types (Eros, Ludus, Storge, Pragma, Mania and Agape) to identify which category that the individuals fall under. Item 1 to 4 actions Eros (the most important 4 questions in this research), item 5 to 8 methods Ludus, items 9 to 12 options Storge, items 13 to 16 measures Pragma, items 17 to 20 steps Mania and lastly, items 21 to 24 steps Agape. The items are scored using a likert scale ranging from A (Strongly agree with the declaration) to E (highly disagree with the affirmation). A was converted to being number 1 1, B to number 2 2, C to #3 3, D to number 4 4 and E to #5 5 to help ease the calculation process. The LAS-SF is scored by calculating the average figure for each and every love type. For example, the scores for question 1 to 4 were added and the divided by 4 to obtain an average figure. This will be achieved for all the categories. The higher the rating is to the love type, than it could be concluded that the participant comes for the reason that particular group of love. A good example of an Eros item is "My wife and i hold the right physical "chemistry" between us". Appendix C presents an example of LAS-SF.
As for the SWLS, relating to Diener et al. (1985), this test has shown a good inner persistence (‹± =. 87), a good test-retest stability that contain a. 82 relationship more than a 2 weeks period and has concurrent validity. According to Diener et al. (1985), SWLS has a romance with self-worth, professional medical conditions, negativity in a person and the talk about of emotion of a person.
On the other side, matching to Diener et al. (1985), LAS-SF projects a good internal consistency (‹±:. 75 to. 88) and has a good test-retest correlations (. 70 to. 82), as it's been tested for seven weeks. LAS-SF also consists of discriminative validity that makes up about the level of individuals' self-worth and if they have experience falling in love before or presently experiencing dropping in love. Matching to Aron and Westbay (1996), LAS-SF has build validity as it predicts of what sort of person would view love as a few ways towards convergent and discriminant validity.
Consent forms (as with Appendix A) were given to all the individuals to ensure that their information is maintained confidential also to inform them on their privileges to withdraw from the study anytime that they sensed uncomfortable. They were advised to answer the questions independently and not think twice in asking the experts any questions or issues on the questionnaire. Those that read and authorized the consent form, were then given the SWLS and LAS-SF. It had taken each individual around 20 minutes to answer all the questions. As all the participants were above the age of 18, there was no need for parent or guardian consent form. Most of the time, the SWLS and LAS-SF were administered to several participants apart from administering it individually.
Independent Sample Test
The marriage between level of age (younger men and women or older men and women) and the amount of Eros was looked into using Independent T-test. As seen in Table 2, there is no significant relationship between years (younger individuals or older people) and the amount of Eros, t(df) =. 802, p >. 05, suggest for adults = 2. 15, imply for older individuals = 2. 03. There is absolutely no difference with age (younger people or older adults) with the amount of Eros. Hypothesis is not reinforced.
Mean Variances Between Younger Men and women And Older Individuals In THE AMOUNT OF Eros
Variable Mean t df p
Younger People (18-30 yrs. old) 2. 15. 802 118. 424
Older Individuals (31-60 yrs. old) 2. 03. 802 118. 424
The marriage between life satisfaction and level of Eros was investigated using Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient. As seen in Table 3, there's a significant linear romantic relationship between those variables, r = -. 334, p <. 001. There is a moderate negative romantic relationship between life satisfaction and degree of Eros. The higher the level of Eros, the low the level of life satisfaction. Thus, the hypothesis is not recognized.
Correlations BETWEEN YOUR Average Level Of Eros AS WELL AS THE Satisfaction With Life Scale
Measure Satisfaction With Life Scale
Average DEGREE OF Eros -. 33***
The outcome of this study didn't support the hypothesis pointed out that adults are usually more Eros type lovers and Eros has a positive correlation with life satisfaction. The results of this study is steady with the results of the studies conducted by Montgomery and Sorell (1997) and Wang and Nguyen (1995) to support that Eros type love is no more common among younger people and inconsistent with the results of studies conducted by Hendrick et al. (1988), Tzeng et al. (2003) and Knox et al. (1999). While the end result that Eros is adversely correlated with life satisfaction is regular with the result of the studies conducted by Hendrick and Hendrick (1989) in the Avoidant Connection Item and the Davis's Conflict's subscales. In addition, based on the study conducted by Hong and Giannakopoulos (1994), there are other predictors alive satisfaction. The results of the review is inconsistent with the studies conducted by Baur & Crooks (2007) and scales (Dyadic Modification Scale (DAS), Marriage Assessment Range (RAS), Secure Attachment Style, Stenberg's Triangular Theory of Love Size and Relationship Rating Form) used in the study conducted by Hendrick et al. (1988). Nevertheless, the analysis is important as a basis on understanding the love frame of mind among the Malaysian population specifically whether younger individuals have higher-level of Eros than more mature adults. Two main reasons could be cited for the non-supportive results. Firstly, the size of the sample was small, only 120 individuals which is not considerable enough to represent the complete Malaysian society which is around 28 million. Subsequently, the sample society was represented by friends and family members or recommendations from other friends which led to the participants not being open about disclosing their actual self applied given that the questions were very personal. While this research is reflective of the Eros type love on the list of Malaysian populace, many previous studies have been conducted on White, Hispanic and Dark population (traditional western culture based individuals). The culture variations in both Traditional western countries and the Parts of asia are very huge. In the european countries, exposure to intimacy and openness in a relationship is far ahead of Asians. Although modernisation has swept over younger era of Asians, culture is constantly on the have some impact on their love styles. Matching to Hendrick and Hendrick (1986), Oriental individuals scored less Eros compared to individuals of other cultural background. They also discovered that Oriental participants largely dropped in the group of Pragma compared to other love types. Predicated on this, it would appear that Asians tend to apply rational skills when it comes to selecting their partners and controlling a relationship and not through love or excited love in comparison to Western country members from the same generation. According to a study done by Wang and Mallinckrodt (2006) to tell apart the difference between Taiwanese people and US people on their attachment in a marriage because of the difference in cultural beliefs. It was found that Taiwanese parents were less expressive of their feelings and weren't culturally willing to project intimacy in a romance which helps that culture influences love types in an individual. In another study conducted by Inman (2006) on South Asians living in the US to look at whether cultural principles contradict with intimacy in connections, it was found that although they modified to match into a few of the US sociable practices, these were bound by their ethnical prices when it came to going out with and intimacy in connections.
The non-conclusive results in our study call for further studies to triumph over the limitations of this review. Future studies should consider gender, competition and educational and socioeconomic track record in determining whether younger individuals tend to be Eros type lovers than older adults.
On life satisfaction, there are other predictors that lead to life satisfaction apart from love satisfaction. Self-esteem, riches and job satisfaction are some of the other predictors of life satisfaction. Self-esteem is a very important factor to determine life satisfaction. People who feel great about themselves and their lives and are always taking a look at the positive side will naturally be more content with their lives than individuals who always believe that they aren't good enough at anything. Relating to Hong and Giannakopoulos (1994), self-esteem contributes 21. 4% and depression contributes 9. 7% of the variance in life satisfaction. That is supported by Hendrick et al. (1988), saying that there are other important factors that lead to raised life satisfaction such as commitment, self-respect and sexual behaviour. Wealth is another factor that contributes towards life satisfaction as one is able to gratify his needs and wants which can be of material value if he has enough money to create a comfortable life for him. Folks are generally wishing to get more detailed wealth for a much better quality of life. Based on a report done by Diener, Ng, Harter and Arora (2010) on income received and the capacity to meet a person's needs from basic needs to luxury items demonstrated a positive relation to wellbeing or life satisfaction. Having job satisfaction is another leading factor to life satisfaction. Job satisfaction comes from sensing good about the nature of the job, place of work, the boss, the office environment and work culture. Sensing good about heading to work each morning will make an individual happy about his life. Relating to Senter, Morgan, Serna-McDonald, and Bewley (2010), there is a substantial positive correlation between job satisfaction and life satisfaction. The study showed that the life satisfaction of employees who have been burned out or stressed out at the job was affected.
With respect to future research, more studies should be done about how much would love types add towards life satisfaction especially among more aged adults. Another advice is always to execute more studies among the Asian population to derive a far more accurate result that includes the global populace on both love types and life satisfaction. This research is one of its kind as it is comparing the love attitude of Malaysians, young and old individuals and their interaction with life satisfaction. It could be figured the results increase serious questions about how young Malaysian adults view love and exactly how much love types contribute towards life satisfaction compared to the other predictors.
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