YOUTH (FROM 15 TO 22-23 YEARS)
Social development situation and educational and professional activities
Youth is the period of transition to genuine adulthood. At high school students and the more students there are almost no children's traits, but they differ considerably in their rates of growth. Someone at the end of the school feels already quite grown up and makes responsible decisions on their own, but a significant number of young men and women continue to be infantile for a while, and some of this feature also passes to later age periods.
As a young person, the range of social roles and interests widens, a person has to fulfill more and more adult roles with an appropriate degree of independence. But while continuing to receive education and work has not been started, a certain degree of dependence on the elders, especially in the material sphere and in shaping the worldview, is preserved.
The main difference of adolescence from the previous, adolescent period is the change of the internal position: the attitude towards the present and the future changes. The main task of the youth period is the laying of the "foundation" future adult life. This includes the acquisition of a profession, the formation of a worldview, the definition of a common life path, the formation of ideas about family life and a marriage partner, possible early marriages and the birth of children. The future becomes the main life dimension, the young men look at the present from the perspective of the future. Real life plans and prospects are starting to be built, taking into account not only the most desirable future, but also ways to achieve the desired. The society puts before the senior pupil and student the vital task of professional self-determination, and thus creates a characteristic social situation of development - the "threshold" independent life, choice of life path.
Professional self-determination, according to IS Kon, goes through several stages.
1. Child Game. Speaking in the game as a representative of various professions, the child "loses" individual elements of the behavior associated with them.
2. Teenage fantasy. A teenager imagines himself as a representative of an attractive profession.
3. Preliminary choice of profession. Many specialties are considered by a young man first from the point of view of interests ("I love mathematics, become a teacher of mathematics"), then in terms of abilities ("I have a good foreign language." I will be an interpreter "), and then from the point of view of his system values ( I want to work creatively & quot ;, I want to earn a lot etc).
4. Practical decision-making. This is directly the choice of a specialty, which includes two components: the choice of a particular profession and the definition of the level of qualification of labor, the volume and duration of preparation for it.
The choice of a specialty is characterized by a multistage approach. By the end of the ninth grade, schoolchildren have to decide what to do next: either to get a secondary education, i.e. Continue education at school, or start vocational training, i.e. go to college or lyceum, or go to work and continue studying in the evening school. Those who prefer professional training or work, you need to decide on a specialty. It is very difficult for a ninth-grader to do this, and the choice often turns out to be erroneous, because the choice of a profession assumes the student has both information about the world of professions, and about himself, his abilities and interests.
The choice of profession depends on social and psychological conditions. The general educational level of parents belongs to social conditions. If parents have higher education, the probability that their children will want to study at a higher educational institution increases.
Psychological conditions are determined by three major factors in choosing a profession:
1) the formation of a sufficiently high level of personal and business qualities, on which the success of the activity will depend;
2) the directed formation of the abilities necessary for a specific professional activity;
3) observance of the principle of unity of consciousness and activity, i.e. orientation on the formation of themselves as a subject of activity.
The process of professional self-determination is very complicated. EA Klimov identifies eight main factors influencing the choice of profession: 1) the position of the family, 2) the position of peers, 3) the position of teachers, 4) personal professional and life plans, 5) abilities, 6) claims for public recognition, 7 ) awareness of the content of professional activity, 8) propensity.
Professional self-determination turns educational activity into an educational and professional activity. This manifests itself in the choice of an educational institution or a profile class. The preference for specific subjects is no longer determined by what they like, but by the fact that they are needed - they will have to take exams for admission to the chosen specialty (for a high school student), it is with them that the future work activity (for the student) is connected. Educational activity is transformed into a means of realizing life plans for the future.
The main motive of learning activities is getting exactly the knowledge that will be needed for a professional pile. The resulting grades are an indicator of the level of this knowledge, so again the attitude towards academic achievement changes - by necessary it is important to have good grades. High school students learn new forms of educational activity, inherent in the next stage of education - attend preparatory courses and individual classes with tutors, and engage in self-education.
Students continue to master the forms of educational and professional activity peculiar to an adult, but with varying degrees of success. Many of them for a long time can not learn to listen and record lectures, outline literature, speak to the audience, conduct a discussion, give an analytical assessment of the problem. It is important for teachers not just to give students the necessary knowledge, but to teach them to plan and organize their activities, to fully study and communicate. It should be remembered that a student is already a socially mature personality and a bearer of a certain worldview, even if not yet completely formed. This obliges the teacher to strengthen the dialogic nature of teaching, to create opportunities for students to defend their views, goals, life POSITIONS.
Since professional orientation is a part of social self-determination, the choice of profession will be successful only if the young man combines social and moral choice with reflections on the meaning of life and the nature of his own "I".
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