Religious Modernism. Modernism in Catholicism
Already at the beginning of the XX century. the ideas of adaptation, adaptation of religion to the consciousness and needs of modern man become popular. They are called religious modernism (modernity), or renovationism.
Modernism is a very important and revealing phenomenon of the religious life of the 20th century. and therefore requires more detailed consideration (on modernism in Judaism (conservative and reformed Judaism) is described in detail in Chapter 7).
Modernist ideas in Protestantism appeared already in the XIX century. (see paragraph 7.7). The philosophical basis of Catholic modernism was the ideas of a number of Protestant authors, idealistic philosophy ( A. Bergson (1859-1941)), Liberal Catholicism Lamenne, reformist Catholicism prevalent mainly in Germany and offering program for reform of the Catholic Church.The abbot Lacorder , speaking of the inviolability of dogmatics, demanded reforms in the church life: the separation of church and state, the widespread introduction of secular education. The priest Moritz of Saxony gravitated toward the conciliar movement ( consularism ), recognizing the authority of the cathedral above the papal one. These same ideas were supported by the old Catholic movement headed by I. Dellinger, who separated from the Catholic Church after the First Vatican Council. All these factors led to the emergence of modernism, aimed at radical transformation of dogma, church life and the ritual of the Catholic Church.
The most movement of modernism has manifested itself in France. To prominent representatives of modernism (or circles close to him) are Alfred Loisy (1857- 1940), Lucien Labertonier (1860-1932), Maurice Blondel (1861 - 1949), Ramolo Murry (1870-1944), George Tyrrell (1861-1909).
Although modernism did not have time to develop a single concept, and the views of its adherents sometimes varied greatly, its general orientation can be clearly traced.
In the development of Catholic modernism, the following stages stand out:
- preparatory (end of XIX century), primarily Americanism, condemned by Leo XIII;
- modernism early XX century.
- a latent period of modernism (before the Second Vatican Council);
Neo-modernism (II Vatican Council and post-sobor period).
The basic ideas of modernism can be represented as follows:
- the denial of supernatural revelation - a man himself searches for God due to the existing inner desire for him, the whole religion is based on personal experience;
- denial of the God-established church hierarchy, especially the broad rights of the bishop and the pope;
- the approach to the Bible as a historical document, the Gospels - a document of the early Christianity era, borrowed the idea of distinguishing "Christ's historical" and "Christ of the Gospel," the denial of biblical miracles as myths;
- the recognition that dogmas are relative, they only reflect a certain stage in the knowledge of God and can change indefinitely; the denial of the dogmas of the Trinity and the divinity of Christ;
- the interpretation of the sacraments as conditional signs, nourishing the inner religiosity (in the spirit of extreme Protestantism).
In philosophical terms, modernism was based on agnosticism (the doctrine of unknowability, in this case - God, which manifested itself in the denial of revelation) and subjectivism, he consistently led to the transformation of religion into a kind of idealistic philosophy with God- an absolute, which did not open itself to people and did not incarnate. The church was understood as a congregation, which led to latitudinism (latitude , width), expansive interpretation of the boundaries of the church, which do not coincide with any visible boundaries, so that all of humanity may end up "unexpectedly for itself" to be within the church. Successive ideas of modernism could lead to deism and atheism.
Culturally, modernism meant complete surrender to the secularism of the New Age, which meant a desire to revise Christianity as such.The struggle against modernism was started by the very conservative Pope Pius X. All forms of secularism and secular culture were contrasted with a consistent Christian traditionalism, without which, in his opinion, there could not exist a European civilization.
In 1907, Pius X (1903-1914), Decree Lamentabili condemned 65 theses of modernism about the nature of the church, the interpretation of the Bible, the sacraments. He introduced an antimodernist oath for all priests and junior clerics. With his assistance, the anti-modern organization Solidarium Pianum (Society of St. Pius V) arose. The program anti-modernist encyclical Pia X became Pascendi Dominici gregis (1907). It contained analysis and evaluation of modernism, its qualification as heresy (and even the synthesis of all heresies), which can take on hidden forms. The document ended with the introduction of a number of measures to combat modernism: the strengthening of ecclesiastical censorship, the imposition of bishops on duty to monitor the possible spread of modernism in their dioceses, conduct inquiries in case of suspicion of sympathy for modernism, and a number of other measures.
Thanks to such intensive measures, modernism was quickly suppressed, which, however, did not prevent its transition into a hidden form, awaiting favorable circumstances for revitalization. A number of modernists were excommunicated (A. Loisi, R. Murri), some submitted (L. Labertonier), with respect to some after the investigation of the case, the accusation of dissemination of modern views was withdrawn (for example, E. Leroy (1870-1954)). The struggle against modernism was not only an internal church event. It was a confrontation between two types of cultures and cultural consciousness. Pius X, like Pius IX, went on unpopular measures to preserve dogmatic orthodoxy and Christian culture in its traditional sense. Of course, this was also achieved through some ghettoization of the Church and traditional culture, but this state of affairs was a lesser evil for the Conservatives under the prevailing conditions, and the "cultural reservation" itself was in fact very active and kept the opportunity to step up actions if the general cultural conditions make this possible.
Dissatisfied, including the liberal and frankly anti-clerical press, accused Pius X of lack of culture, obscurantism and misunderstanding of the "demands of the time." However, the adherents of conservatism argued that only such a rigid course (in some ways reminiscent of the position of the chief procurator of the Synod KP Pobedonostsev) would not only preserve the internal unity of the Church, but also the very Christian civilization as such. The pope limited the use of secular music in worship, confirmed in 1903 that the true liturgical singing of the western church was the Gregorian chant, strictly forbade all attempts to use instruments other than the organ. Subsequent popes: Benedict XV, Pius XI and especially Pius XII - retained a negative attitude towards modernism. Pius XII once again formally condemned a number of provisions close to the modernist.
After the war, Pope Pius XII firmly tried to continue the course of his predecessors, becoming the last traditionalist and conservative on the papal throne, combining conservatism with almost encyclopedic education and intellectual refinement. Its installation to preserve at least some "patches" traditional Christianity in modern culture was uncompromising. Christian culture became part of the pastoral program, which organically continued the motto of the Jews. Pia X Instaurare omnia in Christo ("Restore everything in Christ"), This involved a number of issues, including those relating to bioethics (the value of life that is not subject to no revisions in the new cultural conditions), family problems, etc. The pope paid attention to the issues of medical ethics that arose in connection with the development of this field of knowledge and gave birth to a number of problems that previously simply did not exist.
However, the crisis phenomena gradually gained strength. Among the representatives of the higher clergy, sympathizing with modernist ideas, a kind of esoteric group was formed, aimed at changing the entire church situation after the death of Pius XII. The current situation required the reaction of the Pope - or the reorganization of the Church in accordance with the spirit of the times, i.e. return to modernism, or follow the conservative line of predecessors. The first one would deny the refusal not only of the traditional values of the church, but also of the traditional vision of the whole culture. Hopes for the resurrection of modernism during the life of Pius XII was not, especially as he demonstrated the possibility of expanding the influence of the Church.
In 1958, the Pope elected John XXIII (1958-1963), who took the name that no pope of the last few centuries had borne. With this pontificate, the modernist crisis in Catholicism begins and a new stage in the revitalization of modernism, which receives conditions for an open revival.In all respects, the Vatican II, or the XXI Ecumenical Council (not all in the Catholic world consider this cathedral as the universal one), which met in 1962-1965, became critical, even tragic, for traditional Catholicism. It discussed the strategy of church behavior in an increasingly secular world. The renewed and conservative wing emerged, with the first one prevailing, encouraged by John XXIII with his ajormamento course (update, the word itself implied a hint of modernistic sympathies).
The cathedral was already completed by a new pope, Paul VI (1963-1978). Documents adopted at the cathedral, asserted his pastoral nature and differed in the vagueness of formulations. Known by modernist inclinations, the cardinal L. Sünens contentedly stated that this cathedral is the "French Revolution in the Church". It is also characteristic of the statement of one of the cardinals that he hopes to die before the end of the cathedral, since he will die in this case as the cardinal of the genuine Catholic Church.
The Council revised in the spirit of modernism all the provisions concerning the life of the Church. The separation of the Church from the state was obligatory. By the decree Sacrosanctum concilium new principles of worship deviating from the pre-soborn standards were introduced, the sacrificial nature of the Mass and the exclusive role of the priest in her commission were imperceptibly obscured. Liturgical books became bilingual, and then translated into national languages, often with inaccuracies that distorted not only the style of the text, but sometimes dogmatics. Changes affected all the liturgical books (not affected only by Catholic Uniates). Latin language was promptly superseded from everyday use.
In 1969, despite numerous protests by the clergy and laity, a new mass rite was introduced, although small innovations began in 1962. The existing Tridetite Mass - rigidly stipulated by the special boule of St. Pius V everlasting ceremonial, the changes in which are inadmissible, was actually abolished. In the "Ottaviani Message" - Bacci (the name of the two conservative cardinals who presented this collective document to Paul VI contained a sharp and detailed criticism of the innovations.) Pavel ignored this document and 1970 finally introduced Novus ordo Missae (NOM; New Mass Order ).
The peculiarities of NOM (and the practices it generates) are:
- Reduction of worship in time; reduction and elimination of a number of prayers; service in national languages;
- a change in the main part of the Mass, the Eucharistic Canon, associated with the introduction of alternative eucharistic canons (at the moment - more than 100, in addition to four officially permitted everywhere);
- the cancellation of the ministry by the back to the people;
- the assumption of the sacrament in the hand and standing, which is inconceivable for Catholicism;
- the abolition of traditional church singing with the permission of the parish and the choir to choose chants according to their taste;
- the introduction of new simplified vestments;
- the introduction of new interiors (which led to the rebuilding of temples and the destruction of traditional church interiors, even representing cultural value);
- Reduction of the number of cross signs and kneeling.
The Mass approached the Lutheran and Anglican patterns.
It was the liturgical reform, which began at the cathedral itself, that most painfully struck the believers. The conservative minded part of the clergy resisted innovations, especially the new mass. Actively in this participated Archbishop M. Lefebvre (1905-1991). The new mass was criticized by many liturgists and conservative philosophers and theologians, such as D. von Hildebrand (1889-1977), who stated that no serious theologian and no one with a genuine spiritual experience participated in drawing up the new ritual (which was especially painful for the supporters of modernism in view of the great authority of this philosopher).
The number of people who wanted to accept ritual innovations was so great that the post-soviet authorities made concessions: first the introduction of the Mass of Trident as an "alternative", which required the bishop's "indulgence" (permission) for her holding in a particular community, but they could refuse to receive it without explaining the reasons. Indulus masses were supposed to distract a part of the people from the emerged traditionalist movements, inclined to deny all conciliar reforms in general.
Two documents adopted at the cathedral were devoted to ecumenism: the first concerned the relationship of the Church with other Christian communities, the second - with non-Christian. Both perceptibly contradicted the messages of the old popes. This was reflected in the resolution of the holding of syncretic divine services with the combination of Christian rites with foreign ones. The missionary activity that lost its meaning ("all can be saved") began to curtail.
The active participant of the cathedral, the philosopher J. Maritain, the creator of the theory of integral humanism, developed the concept that the specificity of Christianity as a religion consists precisely in the fact that it is compatible with any culture. Christianity is a spiritual form that can penetrate any culture. The problem of intercultural boundaries with this approach is completely removed.
The cathedral increased the rights of the laity in the church. They began to trust some rituals during the service. Their role in the administration of the church increased, and even the visible boundaries between the clergy and laity began to erode (the priests - the reformists - stopped wearing class clothing and refused the greeting they received).
There was a concession to modern culture with its spirit of feminism and egalitarianism (the proclamation of maximal equality). However, the requirements to legitimize the female priesthood in the spirit of some Protestant communities were rejected, and the dogma of the exclusively male nature of the sacred dignity was solemnly confirmed by John Paul II (1920-2005) in the view, in the opinion of many theologians, of the unmistakable papal judgments. However, a step back before the advancing non-religious culture of the second half of the 20th century. it was still done. It should be noted that the "fruits of the cathedral" even embarrassed and disappointed many activists of its conduct. Paul VI himself spoke about the catastrophic consequences of the cathedral.
F. Maritain, whom many called the "star of the cathedral", at the end of his life declared that the council's course was "neo-modern." He took a distinctly pro-Protestant bias. The hopes for rapprochement with Orthodoxy, declared at the beginning of the cathedral, did not materialize, since problems and disagreements arose in a number of issues (ecumenism, liturgy, multiculturalism) in relations with Orthodoxy and Orthodox culture. Some representatives of the Orthodox Church, as well as part of the Protestants, spoke in the spirit of the fact that with the traditional, "authentic" Catholicism, dialogue was easier and more organic. A number of Orthodox authors with a certain sympathy refer to the position of Archbishop M. Lefebvre, especially regarding the liturgical reforms, and negatively assess the cathedral. Of the known hierarchs of the United States Orthodox Church, the cathedral was positively assessed, for example, by Metropolitan Nikodim Rotov (1929-1978).
Some have tried to justify the destructive nature of the reforms by referring to the fact that "good decisions" were spoiled by their bad implementation & quot ;. The course of the following popes: John Paul I (1978), John Paul II and even more restrained Benedict XVI - as a whole became a continuation of the course.
John Paul II refused to discuss the issue of the women's priesthood and the abolition of celibacy, insisted on unconditional understanding of the mass as a sacrifice with the transubstantiation of gifts, published an encyclical condemning ethical doctrines that did not take into account the grace and divine source of morality. However, ecumenism with him took very active forms. An example of this was the prayer for peace in the monastery in Assisi (associated with the Francis of Assisi, a very popular Western saint), where representatives of all religions, including animistic cults, and practiced rituals of the syncretic type gathered. These prayers aroused bewilderment and criticism on the part of Orthodox, many Protestants and conservative Catholics.
While still a cardinal, J.. Ratsinger (future Benedict XVI) spoke out against extremes liturgical reforms. In particular, he recognized the theological error of serving the Mass with a face to the people, proposed to stop indefinitely the reforms where they had not yet passed. Given the large number of believers who joined the traditionalist brotherhoods or who wish to return traditional worship, and not wanting their possible joining the traditionalist communities, the Pope extended the rights of serving the Mass of Trident for each priest. The new order no longer implies a rigid dependence on the bishop's permission, but this mass still retains the status of "extraordinary" and looks inorganic on the background of the preservation of all the innovations of the Council (moreover, all traditional requirements are not always strictly adhered to in its service). More often among the episcopate there are statements like "Lefebvre was mostly right."
At the same time, the ideal of the New Middle Ages becomes increasingly relevant for many Catholics. The number of cultural traditionalists is also growing, very often Eurocentric orientation. Some of them are characterized by a cultural-Christian bias, when the Church is perceived only as part of the national-cultural tradition and an important culturogenic force (for example, J.-M. Le Pen in France).
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