Adaptation and adaptation processes - Sociology of organizations

Adaptation and Adaptation Processes

Based on an understanding of the organization as a system, its functioning is ultimately subordinated to two imperatives:

• the need to find the most acceptable ways of co-existence with the external environment in order to obtain resources and ensure their survival;

• The desire to impose their rules of the game on the external environment, to change the external environment for themselves, just as an individual tries to change the world around according to his values.

The implementation of these imperatives is reflected in the processes of adaptation and counter-adaptation. As for adaptation , there are a lot of materials on the subject in the scientific literature. Actually, the whole original marketing philosophy as a special sphere of the company's functioning boiled down to attempts to best adapt the company's production and sales activities to the needs of the external, primarily client, environment. Out of adaptation there is no way to survive. Moreover, adaptation to a stable environment is fundamentally different from adaptation to an environment where poorly predicted, turbulent processes occur. In this regard, the adaptation of firms early XX century. is markedly different from the adaptation of modern organizations, which are forced to adapt not to a certain state of the environment, but to the fact that this environment is constantly changing. In fact, organizations implement the principles of adaptation to the environment, which in principle blocks traditional methods of adaptation. Today, adaptation is not an "answer to", but a "willingness to". In the conditions of rapidly developing technology and the global market, organizations form their structures in order to confront any unforeseen difficulties in the way of implementing their strategies.

The basic purpose of the adaptation process is to find the most successful version of the system of exchanges with the external environment. The organization seeks to maximize resources on the most favorable terms and to realize its product with a maximum of income, which can be measured not only in economic-financial, but also social-cultural units. Finding the optimal proportion of "revenue/resources means the acquisition of efficiency, and it is within the adaptation process that the efficiency category can be rationally applied to the activities of organizations.

Adaptation tasks for the organizational system should be considered:

• Restricting the external environment, first of all, the market (after all, to all the processes that take place in today's world, it is impossible to adapt in principle);

• If possible, a thorough investigation of this limited fragment;

• Development of special mechanisms for mutually beneficial exchange with the external environment;

• the creation of buffer mechanisms that can extinguish the negative impact of the external environment on the organization.

The counter-leadtion process is different. The structures created on its basis contribute to the realization of the creative impact of the organization on the external environment. Most clearly, such impact can be seen in multinational companies, which not only spread their influence to the whole world, but also try to change even cultures of individual peoples.

The basic goal of the adaptation is the transformation of the external environment, carried out according to the internal laws of the firm. The tasks of the adaptation are:

• Definition of the opportunities for the organization to expand its segment of the external environment, going beyond the limits outlined by the adaptation process;

• Exploring your inner capabilities to implement changes in the external environment;

• the creation of special mechanisms and structures that can cause changes in the external environment and overcome its resistance;

• Search for related processes in the external environment to maximize its impact.

One can make the assumption that if the process of adaptation is mainly connected with the spread of horizontal links within the organization (the organization seems to be spreading in an attempt to adapt to the market in the best way), the process of counter-adaptation creates within the organization a clear vertical (organization, like a needle, digging "into the market, forcing it to adjust to itself). It is the vertical links that liken the organization to a machine for executing the will of management, and the directions of influence on the external environment are developed precisely by the company's management. The idea of ​​one or several people, which is the basis of organizational activity, can change the external environment. The vertical of power is not only the realization of the requirement of internal coordination, it is also a powerful weapon capable of conquering the external environment.

No organization can be imagined without a vertical power. Even the modern flat "hollow" the structure considered in the previous chapter is still characterized by the presence of a vertical, even if it is strongly shortened. In any firm, persons who are entitled to decision-making, usually senior management, collectively have broad powers that enable them to legally issue orders for the conduct of business of the firm that they consider appropriate and require their execution. "

If the organization cares only about its survival, it can for this purpose break up into hundreds of proto-organisms, small cells that will be able to adapt to any conditions. But such an organization will never be able to change the world in which it exists. The organization, which creates at least a small vertical power, will be able to transform the surrounding space, scale the implementation of ideas that do not directly stem from the development of the external environment, but brought into it by the minds of individuals, primarily from among the leaders of the organization.

The management of the organization and the creation of organizational structures in this plan are related to finding the optimal balance between the processes of adaptation and counter-adaptation. On the one hand, the organization, if it pretends to any significant role in society, should build vertical ties and with their

Building on the basis of their own strategies and priorities. On the other hand, excessive verticalization the company is fraught with the most serious crises. Contrasting themselves with the external environment, the organization must clearly balance its forces, otherwise it will suffer the fate of the vertically upwardly extending pyramid organizations of the early 20th century.

Organizational structures, in the final analysis, always represent a certain combination of vertical and horizontal connections. Their construction is not least connected with the mission of the company, with the desire of the leadership, or to adapt as much as possible to the external environment or make changes in it.

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