Social Programming Algorithm
Methodological and methodological support of social programming includes a number of sequential procedures that can be expressed in the following algorithm.
1. It's not just analysis, but diagnosis of social problems that involves exploring a specific situation, identifying the presence of social problems and their typologization) (definition of belonging to a certain class). Diagnostics assumes three interrelated levels of sociological analysis of the social problem: 1) analysis of the problem situation, based on the objective characteristics of social processes and focused on identifying disproportions in social development; 2) the study of the social well-being of the population in this situation, aimed at revealing how the current situation is reflected in the public consciousness; 3) a study of the behavior of interest groups involved in identifying and solving a social problem.
In this context, the diagnosis reflects the logic of social problematization, based on a dialectical-materialistic understanding of social reality. The diagnosis is based on an analysis of the contradictions in the social development of society, during which socioeconomic imbalances and their influence on the fundamental interests, the basic values of social groups are clarified. Moreover, it is determined whether the existing contradictions are realized by the subjects of social life, whether there are concrete actions on the part of people aimed at resolving these contradictions. Thus, the presence of the problem, its scale, severity and urgency are established [Minina VN, 1997].
2. Based on the information received, the selection of problems to be solved by software is performed. The selection is based on the criterion of the intensity of the problem, i.e. the extent to which the objectives are achieved in the event of a successful decision. At the same time, the urgency, importance and topicality of the problem are determined, its complexity and complexity, i.e. the need to concentrate resources and coordinate the activities of all performers to solve it, as well as the degree of its novelty - the lack of proven experience in solving it in the existing management structure, based on the above criteria.
This approach comes first of all from the possibility, first, of comparing alternative options, their comparison and the possibility of choosing the best, more promising, having positive long-term social consequences; secondly, maximum consideration of the needs and interests of the population. However, the sociological approach has a special significance in the selection when comparing the understanding of problems both in the higher echelons of management, and directly by people, the population.
3. After the selection of programs, the important stage is the definition of the goal that is expected to be achieved as a result of the implementation of the set of measures. Its formulation can be carried out based on an ideal idea of the future, from the real problems, from available capacity. Every time the transition from ideals to real problems, and then to opportunities for social development and vice versa, the goals are more deeply recognized, refined and concretized [Minina VN, 1997]. In fact, they must reflect a development strategy that determines the success of solving problems in the interests of both this program and the whole society.
4. A special place in the programming algorithm is implementation of the resource approach, i.e. the definition of those opportunities that the subject of management has, whether at the level of society, the region or a particular organization. And the resource approach should not be limited to material, financial or labor resources: they may not be enough. At the present stage of the development of society, scientific and social resources are becoming increasingly important.
From the scientific resources depend on the thoroughness, validity, systemic character in determining recommendations for the implementation of the program. However, the scientific justification can be limited if it takes into account the social component of the program, which ultimately is related to people's needs, their mood, their desire and understanding of the urgent tasks. So, in the 1960s and 1970s. Economic and mathematical models of managing the national economy were first developed in Siberia, with the prospect of their application throughout the country. In these models, it seemed that all the resources were carefully and scrupulously taken into account: natural, technical, economic-financial, personnel. They began to implement, and after a while it became clear that the models had failed. Despite all the seeming comprehensiveness, completeness, accounting for all the components in them, there was not one more resource: will people (managers, engineers, workers) want to act according to these beautiful, mathematically and economically sound programs. For many different reasons, they did not want to. That is why the resource approach, including taking into account the social component, is a guarantee for the realization of all social programs without exception.
5. The following procedure is associated with debugging the mechanism of goal realization, i.e. This is a very important stage, because the vagueness, imbalance of means and methods lead to deformation of the goal, cause damage to the whole set of programs implemented, lead to serious social miscalculations.
If we consider from this point of view the programming of United States reforms since 1991, none of them has been carefully prepared and calculated. The effects of economic earthquakes are clearly reflected on the profitability map of United States territories. If in 1993 there were 35 donor regions in the country, then in 1995 - only I, and in 1997 - and at all eight. By 2001, after some clarifications, things like went on the mend: the number of "strong" territories has grown to 19, but another reform has come (now in taxation), and in 2002 there were only 10 donors left again. In 2010, the situation did not actually change: the number of donor regions remained approximately the same.
6. > The matter is (and it is quite natural) that life makes adjustments to the course of program implementation: the imperfection or insufficiency is revealed means, new social needs become new, contradictions between different social groups are revealed during the period of the transformation. Here, the ability of subjects of management to react to changing situations and especially on maturing latent causes is determined. However, the correlation of programs is not only due to internal reasons - it becomes necessary as a result of interference of external factors, which depends on the state policy, the international situation, possible social cataclysms.
7. The final procedure is the evaluation of the achieved result, its comparison with the original goal, the diagnosis and, on this basis, the confirmation, clarification or formulation of a new goal.
Programmatic Approach: Intentions and Reality
Analysis of the situation in the country in 2002-2003. led the leaders of the state to a conclusion about focusing on three issues: doubling GDP, reforming the army and fighting poverty. At the same time, the population, but given by the All-United States Public Opinion Research Center (VTsIOM), considered the struggle against inflation (47%), state control over prices (36%), indexation of salaries (34%). This discrepancy has become a guarantee that the planned programs will not be implemented, despite all the efforts of political power, because they are not coordinated with the needs and desires of the population. As shown by real life, so it happened, nothing of the intended was realized. Doubling of GDP did not happen: the crisis of 2008-2010 came. with the loss of pace and the actual stagnation of the economy (in 2014 it was planned to grow less than 3%). The army reform has failed, and only the measures of the new leadership give hope that a real, genuine realization of this goal will begin. With regard to the fight against poverty, there have been some positive moments, which, however, compared with the situation in other countries are far from the declared goals (in terms of wealth, Russia in 2012 ranked 59th in the world).
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