An examination of sexual harrassment causes and effects

Sexual harassment is a serious problem. The advancement of the term 'erotic harassment' can be searched back again to the middle 1970s in North America, despite the fact that the first successful circumstance in UK was when sexual harassment was contended to be a type of intimate discrimination in 1986, under the Employment Protection Work (Hunt et al. , 2007, Aeberhard, 2001). It could be described as a kind of sex discrimination that encroaches Name VII of the Civil Rights Function (amended in 1991). In 1980, the Equivalent Employment Opportunity Percentage (EEOC) characterises erotic harassment as being unwanted sexual do based on affecting the dignity of man and woman at work. It can include physical, verbal and non verbal carry out. Actually, an action comprises harassment when conformity with or denial of a particular indecent conduct influences on a person's employment, someone's performance at the job which are then conducive for an intimidating and distressing environment (Kim and Kleiner, 1999). So, there are present two basic types of unlawful erotic harassment

Quid Expert Quo: This happens when a job benefit is associated with an employee submitting to unwanted sexual advances. This form of sexual harassment can be committed only by anyone who has power to affect employment activities (such as firing, demotion, and denial of promotion) that will have an impact on the victimised employee.

Hostile Environment: This include: indecent responses and gestures, needless touching, discussing their sex life, using demeaning or incorrect terms-such as "Babe". The activities must be achieved with the aim of violating her/his dignity, or of creating a distressing and humiliating environment on their behalf.

The harasser or the sufferer may be of the female or male gender. The intimidator could possibly be the victim's supervisor, a co-worker or perhaps a non-employee.

The US Merit Systems Security Panel surveyed 23 000 national employees and found that 42% of females and 15% of men have reported being sexually harassed (Mathis et al. , 1981). It has additionally been found that it is mostly women who reported the instances. Yet, the amount of men filing the case are growing significantly, most of them filing against their feminine supervisors. 16 % of men filed the complaints with EEOC in 2007. Furthermore, Lawyers. com along with Glamour Publication made a report in which it was discovered that 17% of men against 35% of women announced these were victims of sexual harassment (Sexual Harassment Support, 2010). The most common abuse for someone found guilty of harassment was either the official or an unofficial alert. Alarmingly, the next most likely result was no action whatsoever.

The reason for the research is to determine the impact of the law on erotic harassment. The study is designed to further analyse the difficult repercussions on the victims as erotic harassment entails a negative psychic, work and health outcomes. Lastly, we provides up solutions to avert erotic harassment at work.


Sexual harassment is principally a misuse of ability (Hunt et al. , 2007, adapted from Brewis, 2001;Sedley and Benn, 1982). Women tend to be susceptible to be victims because they're usually more susceptible, and also have been taught to suffer in silence in comparison to men. It is very important to check out some resources of this plague to be able to understand why women endure sexual harassment.

Normally, employees rely on their supervisor's popularity for opportunities and job success. Supervisors and employers can become familiar with the control they have got over their workers. Such closeness can dazzle the professional limitations and lead visitors to step within the line. Specific problems can be a real cause, and intimate harassment can be considered a symptom of the effects of ordeals such as divorce, or loss of life of a spouse or child (Hunt et al. , 2007). Also, with more plus more women entering the labour market, men have a tendency to feel threatened that their traditional role are being extracted from them. Thus, erotic harassment is utilized as a kind of safeguard, as "an equalizer against ladies in power" according to sociologists of University of Minnesota. Also, their second response was to tap the existence of women and offer erotic favours, to which, submission to erotic demeanours would ensure their job: to avoid being fired, demoted, or otherwise adversely affected at work. (Hunt et al. , 2007). By harassing a women, male employees apart from irritating her, they want to remember her of her susceptibility, building stress that make her work more tough-thus, discourages her from seeking a higher post. Hence, erotic harassment pieces a weather of intimidation and oppression. As an aftermath, the victim undergoes a psycholigical depression; she may criticise herself and have an extremely low esteem. Sexist or sexualised surroundings that promotes intimate jokes, sexual insinuations, and pornography may also be seen in the attitude that the male co-workers will display towards the female. Therefore, women are three times more susceptible to be harassed than in that working environment where such culture is allowed. Erotic harassment of men will happen nevertheless they are less common since men do not presumably report the case. It is often of the same-sex harassment. ( Sexual Harassment Support Community)

Overall, the outcomes of erotic harassment are: the victim bears stress, depression, humiliation, loss of appetite, being of anger, isolation, so much so that this may impact on their work performance plus they may even have suicidal thoughts. (UNFPA, 2005).


The aim of this research is to analyse intimate harassment, particularly, in the workplace and to examine how far the company's policy against sexual harassment is successful.

Specific Objectives

Identify the motives of the harasser and account of harasser.

Explore the brief and permanent consequences of sexual harassment.

Determine the strategies utilized by employers to avoid, cope with intimate harassment.

To evaluate whether government laws and rules against intimate harassment is successful in safeguarding victims and the working people all together.

To know whether women or men are more susceptible to be victims of intimate harassment.

To suggest possible solutions against erotic harassment.



In order to accumulate information for the research, the researcher will have recourse to both main and supplementary data. In the beginning, the collection for principal data will be mentioned. To be able to gain quantitative description, a review will be carried out. The study method takes a sample of respondents to reply to lots of questions that contain been previously determined as highly relevant to the research. However, when doing a survey, only a representation of any population can be chosen and this can be known as an example. Face-to-face interviews and calling method will be utilized to get the behaviour, behaviours and viewpoints about sexual harassment from a group of folks (Stangor, 1998). The face-to-face interviewing will be a good method because response rate may be high set alongside the mobile phone method. The researcher will choose his test randomly or he might use convenience sampling.

Data will further be garnered through questionnaires. Unquestionably, questionnaires will allow gathering information that can't be found somewhere else from supplementary information such as literature, newspaper publishers and Internet resources. Essentially, there are two types of sampling techniques, that are probability sampling and non-probability sampling. With this research, the researcher use probability and non-probability sampling. In cases like this the sample size will be 60 respondents. The researcher at first prepared 10 units of questionnaires as a draft to use as pre-testing. The pre-testing empowered the researcher to know whether the question layout, question sequence, question design are appropriate and recognized by respondents. The purpose of performing a pre-testing is to ensure that the respondents experienced no problems with understanding or answering the questions and used in all instructions properly (Malhotra and Peterson, 2002). Following the pre-testing was done, the researcher revised the questionnaire and done the final draft of computer. At first, he will use stratified sampling to divise the working population in two strata: the general public and the private sector. Then, he'll randomly choose 22 general public and 10 private companies, using both random and convenience sampling which is a non-probability method.

In this research, the questionnaire has various sorts of questions. The use of open-ended questions is to gather the respondents' views on if they feel that their company has good policies against erotic harassment, or offers them the chance to suggest some other solutions not already mentionned in the questionnaires, so as to increase understanding of the topic. Also, dichotomous and multiple-choice questions were used, whereby, the respondents had to answer the questions asked in the questionnaire by selecting the appropriate answer provided.

Qualitative data were gathered so that experts can learn about things that can't be directly witnessed and measured. Because of this thesis, the researcher designs to carry out two in-depth interviews with two HR personnel from two different organisations and when possible, two more interviews with the victim of intimate harassment, the harasser himself or a witness. The purpose of these interviews was to get an information and views of intimate harassment in the workplace and what exactly are the strategies that they would recommend to deter such behavior that creates a hostile environment for a person.

In addition, the researcher will use secondary data on the internet, in books and from the CSO.

Data will then be analszed by using a specific software which is called the SPSS (Statistical Program for the Interpersonal Sciences) and the frequencies will later be keyed in Microsoft Excel to be able to generate the graphs (pub charts and pie charts).


The features of this research is to recognize projects and promotions that had been completed or are on-going which have the aim of raising awareness on the list of working society which involves employers, employees, future working people who can buy a more sound definition of the plague in the research. People have to be conscious of appropriate behaviour in the workplace and exactly how, what looks like friendly teasing could be misinterpreted as another thing. The study will furthermore help the working human population to know how to approach the issue: they can become aware of their rights and exactly how they can demand redress if they experience any kind of intimate harassment. This research may similarly provide a surface for the cost implications of erotic harassment in the work place-thus can persuade employers that it is in their interest to handle this issue. They can moreover, notice the laws and regulations that already exist and can thus sue the harasser in question.

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