Basic concepts of the sociology of culture as a system of society's spiritual production
Among the basic concepts of the sociology of culture, the most significant is probably the concept of "civilization."
• The modern interpretation of the concept of "civilization" means the highest level of material and spiritual and cultural achievements of mankind at the present moment of history. The development of technology in the field of informatics and communication systems ushered in a fundamentally new era of civilization - the postindustrial society. In parallel, in the bosom of modern civilization enrichment of value relations at the level of spiritual production takes place: the spiritual world of man undergoes the process of enrichment with new values. The development of the so-called technotronic (ie, determined by the development of technology, electronised) civilization, more characteristic of Western countries, rationalizes not only the material side of civilizational relations in society, but and their spiritual component. In other words, the rationalization is formalized, spiritual production and reproduction are formalized, which becomes increasingly schematic, ordinary, "customizing" the inner world of people under uniform standards.
In many indicators that characterize the degree of civilization of the country (the mortality rate, in particular, the number of suicides, urban sanitation, ecological situation, etc.), Russia lags far behind the developed countries of the West: the negative impact of the difficulties of historical development our country. As for spiritual production, here the comparison with Western Europe and the United States is very difficult: the difference between the root and genetic bases distinguishes the consciousness of the Slav from the consciousness of Europeans, Americans, Japanese, which can not be even approximated.
So, the development of civilization involves the interaction of two processes: the global development of human civilization and the development of specific national cultures. This latter poses the problem of cultural heritage.
• Cultural Heritage is a collection of characteristics and characteristics of material and spiritual production that each previous generation leaves as a "dowry" the next generation with the right to choose or, better to say, select the best from the abandoned and discard the worst, not justified, odious.
• Cultural universals - these include in products of spiritual production, i.e. in the sociology of culture, AI Kravchenko. Under this kind of universals (that is, common concepts), the author understands peculiar constant types of development, elements of culture. Universal includes many subjects and phenomena common to all cultures of the world: birth and death, age periods (youth, maturity, old age), sports culture, calendar, personal hygiene, etc. In particular, such a cultural universal as decorations, expresses the need for people to be different from their own kind. This need can be expressed individually, for example, the desire to have a unique gemstone, and can exist in collective expression, for example in national clothes or kitchen. Cultural universals serve as the basis for developing what we call taste.
Taste is a person's ability to distinguish, understand and evaluate aesthetic phenomena in all spheres of life and art; a category reflecting the system of value orientations; a system of aesthetic preferences, based on the culture of the individual and the creative processing of aesthetic impressions. In other words, the taste is the understanding of the beauty of nature, things, actions, characters, brought up from childhood. The taste can be bad and good, developed and undeveloped. Despite the fact that taste is a personal property of a person, it always reflects the aesthetic values of society. There is always a determining, dominant taste, which is held by the majority of citizens, which, however, does not interfere with the appearance and existence of outrageous forms that challenge the generally accepted norms of behavior. Outrageous forms of culture, as a rule, are short-lived and short-lived.
Of course, different peoples for different reasons, the main of which were the living conditions in a particular niche "earth house", formed a different taste. It should be noted that, despite the apparent primitiveness of the taste of the first people, it was he who predetermined the ways of forming a specific way of life for peoples.
• Lifestyle is a philosophical and sociological concept that encompasses the aggregate of typical types of life activity of an individual, a group of people, society as a whole in unity with the conditions of life. It allows us to consider the main spheres of people's lives, their work, way of life, culture, etc., in a relationship. As a way of people's livelihood, based on the unity of the natural and cultural, natural and social, the way of life generates a set of elements that somehow characterize the socioproject picture of the generally accepted standards of behavior of individuals in society. This group of elements includes such phenomena as habits, manners, etiquette stereotypes, customs, rituals, customs, etc.
Habits are the norms of behavior of the home, acquired or imposed from childhood, or in public places; a way of behavior, the realization of which in a particular situation acquires the character of the need for the individual.
Manners - this is the external form of behavior of the individual, causing in others either positive or negative reactions. Modern processes have generated a lot of manners, especially among young people, which cause only negative reactions: for example, the absorption of beer right on the street, loud speech, unceremonious treatment, the use of obscene lexicon, etc. The invasion, worse than the Mongolian one, is the "aggression" United States mass media against the United States language. There is a real "ideological sabotage" lack of culture against culture.
Over the centuries of evolution, human society has developed a whole system of manners, a special "cultural complex," called etiquette.
Etiquette is a system of rules of conduct adopted in special social circles that make up a single whole. In modern conditions, everyday, guest, business, military etiquette, diplomatic protocol and etiquette are distinguished. Etiquette has a class content. So, the manners of the Australian aboriginal are radically different from the manners of a gentleman from the City of London. In addition, etiquette has a pronounced situational nature : the need to choose a word, gesture or some other etiquette sign is primarily due to a specific situation.
In contrast to manners and etiquette, customs are the product of the consciousness of large groups of people, for example the people.
Custom is a stereotyped behavior that is reproduced in a particular society or social group and is familiar to their members. The custom of the people is a style that is stable for a given people, which makes one act in the same situation in the same way (for example, a guest came-he should be treated, received a prize-he noted with friends, etc.). In other words, the custom is the mass actions approved and understood by the surrounding people, which are considered generally accepted and must be followed not to be known as the "black sheep". Obsolete customs are replaced in the process of historical development by new ones.
Traditions of moral significance are called mores . This concept characterizes all those forms of behavior of people that exist in a given society and can be subjected to a moral assessment.
Rituals are traditional actions that accompany important moments in the life of society: birth, marriage, death, etc. A ritual, often symbolic, is a ritual (eg, a church).
There are also norms - institutionalized, recognized mandatory order. Norms tend to be anchored in people's behavior and can be transformed into laws - norms of behavior based on the common consent of the population, which are formalized in legislative documents, for example, the Constitution, and approved by parliament or some other authority authorities, after which the laws become binding for all members of society. Violation of this obligation is recognized as a crime and punished by law.
• Fashion, hobbies are also elements of culture. They are caused by the interaction of people about the free choice of relations that do not affect the obligations of the individual to society, and dealing only with personal predilections of a person.
Fashion is an innovation in the world of clothes, manners of combing, using make-up, etc. Truth for the sake of it is necessary to recognize that fashion for all seeming frivolity often turns into a painful search for couturier artists of new lines, forms that emphasize the beauty of the human body, the individuality of a person, his culture and identity.
Hobbies is a world of leisure culture, which is increasingly becoming the dominant factor in a post-industrial society.
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