The cognitive value of political science
In the conditions of the formation of political science as a science in our country, the question of the cognitive and practical value of this science logically arises. There are many answers to this question. In the most general form, they can be reduced to the following.
Politics has always been an area of increased public attention. The whole world history consists of 90% of the history of political events. In the past, politics determined the development not only of the political, economic, but also cultural, scientific and even religious aspects of society. Currently, civil society is increasingly moving away from the "pointing finger" policy, which leads to an increase in the need for political science as an objective system of knowledge that develops the general competence of society in the field of political practice.
In this regard, first of all, it is necessary to focus on the social status of political science . In democratic societies, it is a sought-after science, because there is a real need:
a) in the conclusions and predictions that practical political science gives. This is due in large part to the complication of modern political life, the emergence of new forms of political activity, new political structures and forms of mass political movements;
b) competent political leadership of the state, in highly qualified personnel, for which it is necessary to create a political theory that takes into account both world experience and domestic specifics of the development of the political system;
c) the need for accurate forecasting of political processes.
The goal of political science is to give people reliable knowledge about the political system of society, its content, structure, functions, tasks, opportunities, and finally, the forms known in the modern world. However, this is not an end in itself: such knowledge is necessary so that a citizen of the country can realistically and competently compare political societies known to world civilization, see their most progressive forms and make efforts to implement them within their state.
The proposition that one can live in a society and be free from politics is deeply mistaken. Participant of political processes with inevitability becomes every citizen. One can not disagree with such, for example, the statement: "We are all voters, but when we approach the ballot boxes, we are already politicians." In any case, we become participants in one of the key political processes - the process of formation (formation) of political power in the country.
Of course, you can not participate in elections. But this is also a manifestation of participation in politics: first, it is a demonstration of the attitude towards the political system (distrust, disagreement, etc.); secondly, it gives an opportunity to decisively influence the electoral process at the level of "to be or not to be". After all, if fewer voters take part in elections than are provided for by legislation, they simply will not take place. This factor, in turn, can dramatically change the political situation: if this were presidential elections, then the president will remain in office beyond his term of office, new elections will be appointed, regrouping of political forces will begin. In a word, new political processes will arise with unpredictable consequences. However, one circumstance can be predicted with a very high probability: the problems of economic development, social sphere, culture, etc. During this period, those who stand in power will not be in the spotlight. At the center of their attention will be the struggle for power.
Obviously, political knowledge is especially important for those who are professionally included in the power structures and other parts of the political system of society. The responsibility assigned to these people is enormous. We are talking about the implementation of political, economic, social and other programs that are of great importance for the fate of the country, its security and the improvement of the people's well-being. Meanwhile, in recent years we have had the opportunity to repeatedly verify that the professional level at which debates and discussions of people's deputies are held leaves much to be desired. Unfortunately, not always the level of political knowledge and political culture of deputies was at the proper height.
However, it's not just politicians-professionals. Political knowledge is necessary for every citizen, as, as noted above, all people are participants in political processes. It is important that this participation be qualified and competent, and for this we need scientific theoretical knowledge about the political system as a whole, about political power and the best ways to organize it, about political parties, electoral systems, etc.
Particularly important is the importance of studying political science for economists: financiers, businessmen, specialists in taxation, audit, insurance, etc. It can be said without exaggeration that for them political knowledge is an essential component of their professional training.Teaching the art of ownership of politics, the art of domination, political science helps to shape the political culture of the people, to create a civil society that is so necessary for ensuring human rights and freedoms. Being part of a democratic system, it stands guard over the formation and preservation of humanism, humanity in the relationship between the state and civil society; helps to multiply the number and improve the quality of alternative approaches for decision makers, revealing the socio-political consequences of their actions, which can be both unexpected and unwanted. For example, a specific political analysis could pre-predict and warn the illogical of a number of not well-thought-out decisions of the government and the president.
Political science has a great educational value. American scientists H. Hulow and D. March believe that political science bears the main burden in educating future citizens, having a huge impact on the dissemination of political ideas and ideals, political norms and customs, political information and knowledge.
So, summing up the analysis of the cognitive and practical value of political science, we can confidently assert that political science:
1) promotes an understanding of the close relationship with the politics of the fate of society and every person;
2) helps you to orient yourself in politics;
3) reveals the mechanisms of politics; helps to orient in the use of political power;
4) expands the range of alternative approaches to the adoption of socio-political and economic decisions;
5) contributes to the formation of the political culture of citizens, the development and strengthening of civil society;
6) improves the accuracy of predicting the socio-political consequences of decisions;
7) promotes the development of humanism, humanity in relations between state structures and civil society.
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