This project is to compare Chinese herbal drugs with modern (American) remedies in conditions of culture, sociological and human being well-being effects. A web based system has been intended to showcase a number of popular Chinese language herbals to be able to gain better understanding along the way that these herbs keep body balance and tranquility. The machine also help visitors to check the translation of Chinese herbal selections Also the users can comment online site, and exchange their ideas with others.
Also, some sociological and philosophical reasons that can affect people's views are discussed in the research section of this statement.
1. 1 Task background
The background of the task can be thought asthe tips shown below.
At any moment, healthy is an important factor for a people well-being. Especially at the moment, everyone is thinking more about their health while working and living under the pressure of financial recession. Research has shown that most people choose modern drugs, i. e. , traditional western medicine to treat diseases. However, not only modern drugs costs too much but also it has side flaws. In 2009 2009, after the American performer Michael Jackson passed away, many folks have understood that taking more medications can get sometimes unpleasant side-effect, and sometimes, fatal. Furthermore, due to pandemic of Swine Flu, people have began to think more about disease protection than just healing them. To the end, Chinese herbal treatments can help and has since become more popular than before, which is a very natural choice. So, more and more people are interest in Chinese Herbal Remedies (CHM). Regarding to World Hearth Business (WHO) webpage, the following description has been given: "During its 3000-calendar year history, traditional Chinese treatments pioneered interventions such as diet, exercise, awareness of environmental influences on health, and the use of herbal treatments within a holistic approach to health. "(1). Chinese language Herbal Medicine can be utilized as in information. However, , just like any other medication, CHM is complicated, even to Chinese language people. To comprehend Chinese Herbal Drugs is not easy. So, a system thatcan supply the information of Chinese language herbal medicine can help individuals who are not used to CHM in lots of ways.
1. 2 Problem definition
From the questionnaire conducted in this job and shown in Appnediex, more than 80% non-Chinese people heard about Chinese Plant based Medicine, . Whereas, greater than a half of these prefer modern remedies. So, why donot they like Chinese language remedies is the first question to ask.
Secondly, According to the questionnaire, more than 60% people use Internet everyday, which means, with the introduction of e-commerce, Internet can be considered a tool that delivers people with different views on Chinese herbal medication. But, during the research, as yet, just a few web site can support this, which are
A) http://www. herbalmedicineuk. com/
B) http://www. holisticchineseherbs. com/
C) http://www. holisticchineseherbs. com/
On the other hands, there are some problems in these three sites.
Figure1: the first website at http://www. herbalmedicineuk. com/
The web page A can be utilized to buy some herbs on line, i. e. , it is just a on-line shopping internet site.
There is not any information regarding the background of the herbs. Out of this internet site, users only can purchase the herbal remedies, but cannot learn the knowledge of Chinese herbal medicine.
Figure 2: the second web site.
Similarly, web site B can only provide general home elevators CM, however, not information regarding each individual herb and its functions.
Figure3: the third web site
On the other side, website C provides amount of useful information on CHM. However, again as it pertains to each plant, the data is not there with a number of translation problems. In conclusion, although there are many web sites that provide information on Chinese language herbal medicine, for folks with little knowledge of CHM, a fresh web sited is needed to are an educational tool as well as an internet shopping site, which is exactly what this project does.
1. 3 Aims
The aim of this project is to create and create a web site system which allows users with little understanding of CHM to learn and understand Chinese language herbal remedies. Another purpose is to start an online discussion forum to get the reasons for that why so many people have no idea or dislike CHM.
1. 4 Objectives
Gather information on the knowledge of CHM predicated on questionnaires.
Interview with doctors who practice CHM. Perform research on these topics
Design and build a web based system.
Evaluate the online website.
Write final survey on project.
2 Books review
This chapter will review three literature on Chinese treatments, which include 'Chinese herbal drugs -A functional guide to the treatment power of herbal products' by Guang Xu (Give reference in the end???), 'Medicine East And Western world: Two Means of seeing, two ways of thinking' by Ted J. kaptchuk (guide???), 'Chinese herbal medicine Formulas and Strategies' by Dan Bensky and Randall Barolet (research???) and 'Chinese language Herbal Legends' by Zhu Zhongbao (reference point???).
2. 1 The treatment vitality of herbs
In the publication written by Guang Xu, the writer tries to give a general summary about Chinese natural drugs. The related chapters can be split into two parts, is Chinese herbal drugs history, a different one is the components of Chinese herbal medication.
Chinese herbal medication has a long history greater than 5000 years. The history can go back to enough time of Sheng Nong, when Chinese people used plant life to take care of the illness beyond a few thousand years.
As described by the author, Chinese herbal medicine is rooted in the culture of ages, it cannot be easily described or assessed by modern medical terms and methods. With out a total knowledge of its background and its history, it is very difficult to comprehend. [research??]. Corresponding to Chinese language Culture, fundamentally, there are two different elements that make a difference Chinese Herbal Medicine. Is Yin (darkness) Yang (brightness), another one is Five-Element Theory. By understanding both of these elements, it is simpler for people who don't know CHM to comprehend Chinese Herbal Drugs.
2. 1. 1 Yin and Yang (darkness and lighting)
Yin-Yang means that everything in the world has an contrary, such as sky and land, sunlight and moon. Although they are other, they also is definitely an unity. Through this unity, the natural world will keep the total amount well.
Yin-Yang depends upon with each other, meaning if there is no Yang, there is absolutely no Yin. When the balance of the relationship of the compound of Yin-Yang are destroyed, the life span might reach its end.
On the other side, Yin-Yang has a particular relationship. If one wanes the other will polish. For example, just like the four conditions, if winter changes to originate, the elements should be warm. It's the procedure for Yin waxes and Yang wanes.
Reinforcing the spleen (globe) to fortify the lung (steel) ;
Failure of normal water (kidney) to nourish real wood (or inability of the kidney to nourish the liver organ) ;
Five actions and six climates;
Wood tending to spread out readily;
Depression of the liver organ (hardwood) generating fire;
Fire of the liver organ (wood) impairing the lung (metallic);
Fire tending to flare/flame upward ;
Excessive fireplace impairing the lung (material) ;
Failure of hearth to generate globe ;
Coordination between drinking water (kidney) and open fire (center);
In coordination between the kidney (normal water) and the heart (hearth) ;
"Being limited" and "restricting" ;
Traditional Chinese herbal medication, however, can be based on two treatments that happen to be on philosophical strategy.
2. 1. 3. 1 The Holistic Concept
By this concept, there's a general meaning, i. e. , the body is a unity and a world is within a body. Alternatively, it has a close interaction with the planet. Traditional Chinese Medication maintains a human body is composed of different organs with each organ having its own specific function, as part of the complete body. Also, Chinese medicine regards the whole body as an organic and natural body. 'Its constituent parts are inseparable in composition, interrelated and interdependent in physiology'. Man has a aspect life, and characteristics has an environment for man's survival. So, people can be influenced by nature. Customs Chinese Medicine state governments 'Physicians need to know regulations of dynamics and geographical conditions when diagnosing and dealing with diseases'. That is the reason of Tradition China Remedies not only stresses the body is a unity but also respect the interrelationship between the body and dynamics environment.
2. 1. 3. 2 Treatment by Differentiation of Syndromes
Chinese herbal medication, on the other hands, is also grasped as treatment by differentiation of syndromes. The meaning of differentiation is to analyze the diseases by comprehensive, implying that the patient's symptoms and indications collected by the next four diagnostic methods are analyzed and summarized in order to identify the etiology, aspect and location of a disease, and the relationship between vital qi (air) and pathogens, therefore to know what syndrome a disease in matter belongs to.
According to the relationship between "disease" and "treatment", traditional Chinese medicine is dependant on two various ways. One is to take care of the same disease with different therapies. Whilst another one is to treat different diseases with the same remedy, i. e. , different disease can be manifested in the same situation may be treated just as.
In summary, using different options for the treating the condition is the central of Treatment by Differentiation of Syndromes.
2. 2 Chinese language Medicine and Western Medicine
The booklet by Ted J. kaptchuk discusses the difference between East and West medicines, such as why some westerners dislike Chinese Medicine? There's a philosophic reason, which is the fact Chinese language culture is hard to understand. But, another reason is sociological. This is the way of european people considering Chinese Medicine. Within this book, author provides two different views on seeing and pondering via westerner's view, If a non-Chinese person can found both of these ways, he/she might become enthusiastic about Chinese Remedies.
The first one is concerned with treatment effect. Many non-chinese have bizarre notions about Chinese language medicine, A few of them view it as hocus-pocus-the product of primitive or magical thinking. If an individual is cured by means of natural herbs or acupuncture, they see only two possible explanations: Either the stop is a placebo effect, or it is an accident.
To many people, when they found out about CHM, the first sense in their brain is that, Chinese medicine is marvelous, but not technology. The reason why can be understood that Western medication is dependant on data. European doctors choose using data to take care of disease, whereas Chinese language doctors are and only their experience.
Another way of thinking, as described in the e book, is "Other Westerners have a far more favorable but equally erroneous view of Chinese language medicine. Deeply and often justifiably disturbed by many of the products of American technology and culture, they believe that the Chinese language system, because it is experienced to be more ancient, more spiritual, or more alternative, is also more "true" than American medicine. "
In this way, some Westerners like Chinese remedies, but, because of different record, different culture, different history, their translate Chinese treatments of their own way predicated on their own culture. Also, they learn Chinese language medicine through TV, Internet and some other media. In their mind, that is what Chinese drugs should appear to be.
By and large, there are two sets of people. One group use Chinese language medicine, but, think that Chinese drugs is less logical which is not based on science. It will depend on a patient's lot of money. Another group of men and women think Chinese remedies through their own culture. Their brains are often mixed by this culture and other press. So, in their mind, they have a different image of Chinese herbal medicine. But, often, this image is imperfect.
In Summary, the sociological reason that why westerners dislike Chinese language medicine is dependant on a whole system. The Chinese language method is based on the idea that no single part can be realized except in its regards to the complete. Understanding this overall style, with the warning sign as part of it, is the task of Chinese treatments. The Chinese language system is not less reasonable, just less analytical.
2. 3 Formulas and Strategies
The publication on Formulas and Strategies by Dan Bensky and Randall Barolet has divided Chinese language herbal remedies as Chinese herbal and Chinese treatments. Whereas the publication by Zhu Zhongbao on Chinese Herbal Legends' targets the utilization of natural remedies.
Recently, more and more Chinese doctors found it hard to convert Chinese herbal labels. Because, the natural name is based on Chinese culture and record, and there are so many acceptable alternatives. Since these books work as a reference wording, for our project, our information is to reveal as closely as you can the meaning and syntax of the original CHM. We use anglicized Latin brands for medicinal chemicals. The proper translations of herbal can be found from these two books.
The following instances are given in the web site designed in this task.
1) Cang zhu
English name: Swordlike Atractylodes Rhizome
Pharmaceutical name :Rhizoma Atractylodis
Nature and flavor: Pungent, bitter and warm
Dries dampness and strengthens the spleen
Dispels wind flow dampness
Induces sweat, emits the exterior
Syndrome of dampness stagnation in Midsection Burner
Impediment syndrome due to wind damp
Exterior symptoms of wind, cold and dampness
Chickenpox, mumps and scarlet fever
Night blindness and dry eyes
2) Jin Yin Hua
English name: Honeysuckle Flower
Pharmaceutical name: Flos Lonicerae Japonicae.
Nature and flavor:Lovely and cold
Clears away warm up and handle toxin
Disperses breeze and heat
External contracted wind-heat, the starting point of warm disease
Carbuncle and clove sores
Bleeding due to warmth toxin
More information about translation will get by section 3"result and disscuess".
Based on the study of literature review, two methods have been applied in the development of the project. Is to perform questionnaire to gather information from the idea of view of Chinese doctors. The other is to design and develop an internet based information site providing educational tool on the explanation of what each supplement will and a prototype of potential online shopping site to provide the herbs that folks require.
3. 1 Interview with a Chinese language doctor
Location: Brent Cross Doctor Herb
Student Name: Yuanlei Wang
Following the recommendation by the supervisor, Dr. Amaldi, this interview took place at Brent Cross Doctor Herb in order to gain insight useful information from a professional CHM specialist. The Chinese language doctor of the clinic described the changing of Chinese language herbal medicine during the last a decade. After documenting, translating, and evaluation, the main items can be summarized the following.
As reviewed in Section 2, there are two main reasons that Chinese natural medicine is much less popular as Western medicine. They are really sociological and culture.
In the past, because Chinese government had 'closed door' policy, Chinese language were hardly known to the other world. Nor was Chinese language Herbal Medicine, which includes led less people being fascination with China culture, background, and Chinese organic medicine. On top of this, Chinese government enforced a 'culture revolution' and dismissed CHM, resulting in less and less people know this treatments, even in China.
In Europe, every medical practice needs license to ensure patients' basic safety, which can only obtained by field trial through gathering massive amount data. As discussed in Section 2, CHM is principally predicated on experience. Therefore CHM cannot be used in many hospitals, but can be utilized as additional therapy, such as acupuncture. As the distinctions in culture, it is hard for non-Chinese visitors to understand this invasive technique,
On the other side, the UK Country wide Health Service (NHS) has only launched limited CHM. Many Gps device (general practitioner) think Chinese language herbal medicine can be an accident not a knowledge. Because NHS is free to the united kingdom people, whereas CHM are expensive, people will think before go to a CHM shop.
Chinese herbal remedies (CHM) in the UK
Since China began an 'open up' policy three decades before, more and more people have went to China and have become increasingly more interested in Chinese culture and therefore CHM.
Now, in the UK, there are over 3000 Chinese language medicine shops from coast to coast, a rise by over 30% in the least 30 years. More and more people have started to take Chinese herbal medicine. Furthermore, the united kingdom government has an idea to legitimate Chinese herbal medicine within NHS. So, CHM gets increasingly more recognized in enhancing people's physical condition and healthy life.
(More info will get in result and debate )
3. 1. 4 Marketing Effect
British Broadcasting Cooperation (BBC) in addition has made huge contribution to bring in CHM to the united kingdom. For example, in January 2006, BBC Channel 2 did a programme on Acupuncture Deactivates Brain and again on Back-pain Acupuncture Effective in Septmeber.
In these programmes, doctors make an effort to use the acupuncture instead the overall anaesthetic. During the first programme, it is stated: "The pain matrix is involved in the perception of pain - it helps someone decide whether something is agonizing or not, so it could be that acupuncture in some ways changes someone's pain perception". But he added: "The thing about acupuncture is that it generally does not focus on everyone. It really is more likely to work if you believe it. "I think it is a psychological manipulation technique, a distraction. We will not get to the stage where this may be used rather than a general anaesthetic. "
In the second programme, the subject matter is the fact that acupuncture for low back pain is cost-effective and works, according to medical scientists.
According to the interview through the questionnaire time, the physician remembered that following this TV programme, many people discovered that Chinese herbal medication are useful for his or her body. More and more people have visited Chinese medicine shop.
This example shows that media can provide a good way to spread a news. Other method of media also needs to be employed in this regard.
Design and Build an internet based Herbal Shop
Although TV is a extremely useful way to transmit a reports, it gets the limitation of time. Like the two programmes mentioned in Section 3. 1. 4, they were shown near mid-night when many people are gone to bed and overlooked many viewers. Internet, however, is 24-7 and can be looked at whenever, any location by using any means (e. g, mobile phone, computer, Television, etc). Therefore in this project, an online system has been intended to introduce Chinese herbal selections plus their relevant information. The net page reaches http://image. mdx. ac. uk/leilei.
Figure 1 screen a use-case UML (Unified Modelling Dialect) diagram displaying the design.
Figure 1. A UML diagram displaying the developed Chinese Herb website (http://image. mdx. ac. uk/leilei).
The system user interface is consisted of three main parts, including product taking a look at page, internet search engine, input site, and guest book to send users' feedbacks, and has client-server framework. In the server, the data source is built using MySQL language, a rational repository language. While the web interface is made using PHP (Personal Home Page) terminology, a c-like words.
When users use this product, the process serves as a follows.
Figure 2. System framework.
When users enter in data through internet interfaces that are coded in PHP. Then your interface through PHP directs/retrieves data to/from MYSQL repository that is resided at the net web page server at http://image. mdx. ac. uk.
3. 2. 1 Functions of the system
This system has three parts, including Visitor publication, information, and record, which are illustrate in review.
About Chinese organic medicine
The history of Chinese organic and natural medicine.
The first function is the information of Chinese organic and natural remedies. , in this website, users can know the history of Chinese organic and natural medicine, and other information.
The second function is Visitor publication, in this function, the users can write some words in the internet browser. This part just provides a environment for exchanging ideas.
The previous function is Chinese herbal to expose its function, taste, condition, and so many more.
4 Consequence and Discussion
This Section will discuss the results obtained from the interviewing with a Chinese medication doctor and the developed prototype online CHM shop and information system.
4. 1 Results from the interviewing
Through the questionnaire and the interview with the Chinese language doctor at Brent Corss Medical clinic, it can be concluded that almost half of the populace don't like to don't know CHM, as illustrated at Body 6. A considerable number of men and women have not heard about CHM. And a quarter of people have no idea the places to purchase CHM. Many people do even like the style of CHM, which is similar to many Chinese language people who take herbal remedies.
Figure 3. Pie chart demonstrating the group of people thinking of CHM.
These differences again can be associated to the issues of 1 1) Culture 2) Translation. 3) Mass media 4) Administration 5) The likes of Organic and natural. In these data, culture belongs to philosophic reason, whilst press, translation, federal and the likes of herbal relate with sociological reason.
Chinese Remedies has subsequent characteristics.
Preventing is more important than treatment
According to Chinese medicine booklet "Discolored Emperor", people should treat disease before they own it, i. e. , people should look after their body before they may have illness. Another e book "Hua inan zi (Chinese drugs)" also boasts that a good doctor often snacks non-diseases, hence there is absolutely no disease. I. e. , if a doctor can find someone's disease before this person get it, he'll never understand this disease. This prevention-oriented medical thought that individuals should look after their health from an early age, can change as a way of measuring dialectical beliefs, which is the essence of Chinese culture.
Nature and Man should be together
The overall idea of Chinese philosophy targets that real human and nature world should be along, just like a body. The world and the people are not isolated, and they are interdependent, interacting, and interrelated. With regards to Chinese Herbal Remedies, it also offers the same pinciple.
Chinese herbal medicine advocates astronomy, geography, and individuals should be considered a complete entity. A dynamics individual cannot leave the cultural world to endure. The factors that influence health insurance and disease, are concerned with not only natural factors, but also sociable and subconscious factors, So, Chinese Herbal Drugs also advocates treatment that should give attention to the change of character world.
To adjust the balance of Yin-Yang (YY)
Chinese Treatments mentions that the Yin-Yang is two sided, which is relatively representative of the body. The development and development is inseparable from the development of YY. In your body's normal physiological conditions, the comparative balance of YY is looked after, which is important. If you are transformed, the mis-balance will cause the change/disorder of body's normal physiological function. All the actions that a human is doing in the type world are inseparable from the balance of YY. Therefore, the purpose of the coordination demonstrates traditional Chinese culture focus on symmetry, the bedrock viewpoint of the total amount.
Static and strong notion of the regular combining
From the early age, Chinese Beliefs already found the relationship between static and active understanding, as explained in the Reserve of Change (Zhou Yi). The static and active things are occurring constantly. The element in the type world should excersice and changing. In the complete human being life, everything in the torso, should keep changing until the end. Motion is the rule of aspect world. It is the basic component of human being health. So, Chinese Medicine strains dynamics that can treat disease. Just as the same manner that folks know that sporting is good for health. On the other hand, comparing with energetic view, Chinese Natural and organic Medicine also discovered that silence can even be a healthy behavior. "Qi Gong" (i. e. , marshal skill) is based on this view. So, Static and energetic component should be completed.
A good translation can help people who have different culture history understand Chinese Natural and organic Drugs (CHM) better. Because CHM has its culture and record, sometimes, it is difficult to convert the words exactly, which can cause annoyance and lead more people lose their curiosity about CHM, which is described below.
The philosophic meaning in the drugs name. Some CHM labels derive from their own philosophic interpretation, such as Yin Yang, Yuan Qi and so on. If people do not know Chinese philosophic culture, it might be hard to translate.
For some CHM doctors, when they translate medicine titles, they sometimes copy some western medication titles. Whereas actually those medicines are very different.
Because of the long history of China, Chinese Herbal Medicine is dependant on an old knowledge system. Through more than thousand years, some of them have already lost their meanings with only a few people understanding. So, even to some knowledgeable Chinese people, translating drugs names is a difficult job.
Other factors include Mass media. According to data evaluation from the questionaire, media is a very important means in order to let more folks know Chinese drugs. However advertising can be limited, including the 'wrong time' of your TV programme leading to many people absent the show.
Another factor is Governmental: Before, Chinese Government experienced a 'finished door' policy, which includes limited knowledge of CHM.
The questionnaire in addition has concluded that bad flavor of herbs could also have some effect to avoid people taking them.
Online shopping system
Figures 3-6 illustrate the snapshots of web interfaces of the developed prototype online information and shopping system.
Figure 4. The user interface showing the Plant information.
Figure 5. Insight interface.
Figure 6. Search engine.
Figure 7. Guest book for mailing users' feedbacks.
The system now contains more than 20 herbal remedies information.
The analysis of the developed web site is dependant on heuristic evaluation. That may give a standard overview of the web page, also, through this way, it can provide a good notion for creators to improve the system design.
The reason for this evaluation is the fact that, users have a task to see the complete web pages. This should start on the home webpage and conclude when users receive the feedback. Through this way, users can have a general view of the system by following the guidelines shown below.
User control and freedom
Users control and liberty can be recognized that system can support users undo or do. Through the duty we choose, users will get that it's not easy for them to control the websites. ie, in the comment webpage, when users post the words, they will find that there surely is a button to allow them to resubmit.
Fun and enjoyment
According the purpose of this internet site, the web site should supply the information of the Chinese herbal medication to users. That means that the web webpages should be fun, but these webpages are very plain, i. e. , 1) All the background shades are white. 2) The website is too simply, There is absolutely no pleasure for users.
Feedback is very important to users to understand the information of the website. In this internet site, users can comment and see the other feedbacks.
Provide brief cuts
Short cuts are easily for users to find what they want. In general, the web site is useful. Users can find the info regarding Chinese organic and natural medicine that need from the home page.
Aesthetics and minimalist design
Normally, users can have a good sense with a good minimalist design. But, this web site is boring at this point. Through all web pages, there is no shade, no pictures, all the switches are closed with one another. That could be caused some blunders of users.
On the other hands, there are a few positive feedbacks. The users can find control keys easily, especially on the last page, where there is a comment site, providing a good connections between users and the web site.
In conclusion, this web site is okay, users can get some good standard information about Chinese herbal medicine out of this web site, also, this site has a visitor web page. Users can have a good connections with the machine.
According heuristic analysis, there are a few negative aspects. Such as for example, 1)This technique is very simply. 2) The colours aren't very good. 3) It is boring for users 4) Some steps are not useful.
All in every, this site can give users an over-all opinion of Chinese language herbal medication.
There are some aspects which need to recommend.
It should change colours of the web pages.
The system shouldn't be simple.
The internet site should increase some pleasure.
It should provide the search function for users.
The webpages should give more flexibility to users.
This project aims at introducing people Chinese Herbal Drugs and is rolling out an online system providing information on Chinese herbs. The design of the machine applies client-server framework and uses MySQL and PHP programming languages. The machine also has a guest booklet providing users the probabilities to send give food to backs.
The review conducted in this project using a questionnaire has made the next recommendations to be able to let more folks know more about Chinese medication.
Using some brief stories to tell people Chinese language culture.
Using many multimedia in addition to Television to spread the news on Chinese natural and organic medicine.
Making translations better quality.
Adding some tastes to improve the likes of some 'bad style' herbs.
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