Comparing Models of Health

Keywords: biomedical model of health, social model of health

"Compare any two models of health. Briefly make clear the relationship between named sociable factors and health"

There are amounts of means of how health can be described. One of most known definitions is by World Health Organization that state governments 'health is a state of complete physical, mental and public well-being and not merely the absence of diseases'. However, there are three main models of health and each of them has its definition. This essay will compare two types of health - bio-medical model and social model - as well as discus s range of cultural factors that affect it health.

Over the last hundred years the most influencing and dominant model in health in European countries has been biomedical model. It began in nineteenth and early on twentieth ages, when there were great developments of medical knowledge (Taylor, Field). Biomedical model is a conceptual model of condition that only includes natural factors, excluding possible subconscious and sociable factors in try to understand person's medical condition or disorder (Mondofacto, 2009). Quite simply, biomedical model views body as a machine that if it's no longer working then it needs to be set. Furthermore, it only embraces one reason behind condition, dismissing other possible factors that may have lead to it. Prevention of disease is not the concern of the health model; it focuses on finding a remedy. The aim of biomedical model is to "reduce morbidity and premature mortality" (Naidoo, Willis, 1994)

The social style of health is not as popular as biomedical model, because its remedy of illness or disease is not straightforward. It targets the life-style and behaviour of people as well as it strains and promotes personal responsibility. Corresponding to Taylor and Field (2007) 'significant improvement in health is much more likely to come from changes in people's behaviour and in the problem under their live'. Following this further, social model of health acknowledges influences on health of political, economic, interpersonal and environmental factors with the purpose of changes in them, which can only help to promote help. (Naidoo, Willis, 1994) On the contrary to biomedical model, the social model of health sees body as a whole rather than independent physical part.

The biomedical and public models of health are different in most of the aspects. Though their both promote health, their propagation towards it and understanding in health is different. While bio - medical model of health says that "the individual is not responsible for their illness which mind and body work separately from each other (Ogden, 2004), the interpersonal model's affirmation differs. It thinks in overall express of health that addresses to physical, sociable and monetary environment (Naidoo, Willis, 1994). For instance, biomedical model of health would claim that lung tumor is caused by smoking, while communal model of heath may suggest that unaggressive smoking or hereditary disposition to the condition can be triggers to it. Seeking this further, Blaxter (2004) yet suggest that bio - medical style of heath will not promote a wholesome lifestyle, as maybe it's thought if you are smoking, too much sipping and eating unhealthily however, not sensing ill, then it is acceptable to transport on your. Controversially, social model of health is looking at it in another way, by encouraging people to lead a healthy lifestyle preventing diseases and diseases (Blaxter, 2004).

The differences between your bio-medical and sociable models of health intensifies even more when in eighteenth and nineteenth centuries mortality and morbidity rates decreased. The reasons of these magnificent changes were 'lowering in mortality from infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, cholera, diphtheria and dysentery' (Morgan, Calnan, Manning, 1998, ). The serious question begun between Griffiths and McKeown, after Griffiths said, the 'expansion of the hospital, dispensary and midwifery services, enhancements of understanding of physiology and anatomy, and release of smallpox inoculation' (ibid) were the great causes of declining in mortality rates. Regardless of the strong evidences, Tom McKeown proven that T. Griffith's research were wrong and gave distinctive evaluation. It was figured particularly advanced living conditions, sanitation and nutrition as well as limitation in family size were the major factors of decrease in mortality rates. By this, McKeown shown that sociable and environmental conditions have a large effect on people's lives.

In Modern Britain cultural classes remain with lower classes residing in poverty and facing inequalities in health. For long, health inequalities between public classes were not certified until 'Black colored record" was released in 1980. By using infant mortality rates, life expectancy, mental condition and causes of death, it proved that the higher person's social class is, the more likely he would maintain a a healthy body. Since the standard living and working conditions are significantly most severe in lower sociable classes, these evidences do not come as a surprise. Not merely people are in inadequate casing conditions, such as damp, disrepair and lack of bathroom facilities (Naidoo, Willis, 1994) - which have a direct effect on health - but are also more inclinable to lead detrimental lifestyle with lack of exercises, poor nutrition and bad habits (Browne, 2005). As a result, people living under these conditions have more health issues, such as center diseases and respiratory health issues. Following this further, people from deprived areas aren't only much more likely to suffer from sick health, but also, have to face a poorer health care, with overworked Gps unit and long waiting around lists in clinics. (Browne, 2005)

However, bio - medical model of health will not agree with cultural model by boosting recognition in inequalities in health between sociable classes, proclaiming, that the ' diseases of affluence', such as cardiovascular system diseases and cancer will be the major killers in modern-day Britain' (Naidoo, Willis, 1994). Yet, Naidoo and Willis (1994) represented argument these diseases are more prevalent in lower cultural classes. Notwithstanding, Bio - medical model will abide by social model of health about love-making dissimilarities in morbidity and mortality. Naidoo and Willis statement 'that women are definitely more resistant to infections and benefit from a protective impact from oestrogen accounting for his or her lower mortality rates' (Naidoo, Willis, 1994). However, the bio medical model can not describe the difference of women's mortality rate between sociable classes just as before.

In bottom line, it is observable that both bio - medical model and public model of health has a great arguments in their believes and special offers. However, it is clear that sociable model of health offers more holistic approach to health by looking at lifestyle and environment with the aim to prevent conditions before it appeared. Saying that, with out a bio - medical model of health, medicine wouldn't normally be just as much advanced as it is now. Ideally, both models of health should be working along with to provide with the best attention in health and so essential characteristics in health.

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