Comparison of the characteristics of texts of different media...

Comparison of the characteristics of texts of different media

We will get a similar food for thought if we compare the analyzed source of information with other means of communication. It is known that the natural characteristics of each tool impose certain restrictions on the form of communication. Let's compare the volumes of broadcasting by types of information on radio and television (Table 16.4).

Table 16.4

The percentage of transfers of various types in general at the All-Union Radio and Central Television in 1990,% to the total volume of broadcasting

Transfers

All-Union Radio

Central Television

Informative broadcasts,

28

41

including news

5

5

Artistic and cultural programs,

56

30

including movies

16

-

and radio performances

-

5

Entertainment programs

8

6

Sports broadcasts (other than sports in the news)

-

6

Learning programs

-

-

Transfers for children

8

7

Religious programs

-

-

Advertising (including announcement of transfers)

1

1

Thanks to timely content-analytical studies of Soviet radio and television (the group for analyzing the effectiveness of television, the Faculty of Journalism of Moscow State University), we now have the information that they were in the last decade of the 20th century; with the necessary costs, they could be reproduced for comparison with the United States situation at the beginning of the 21st century.

Comparing text characteristics with publisher settings

We said that for a number of tasks, having an idea of ​​the ideal type of newspaper, radio or television channel, expressed quantitatively, would have removed a lot of problems for the analyst. Unfortunately, such a representation is possible only on a theoretical level. But for a number of tasks it is possible to get a fundamental basis - in some way analogous to those requirements, recommendations to this effect of the publisher. By the way, the canons of American journalism, which are considered to be a set of purely professional requirements for the information process, and which, in fact, inspired the American researchers cited by us, when they checked to what extent American newspapers distinguish editorial orientations and purely factographic materials, are nothing else. And this was quite a winning moment in the process of interpreting the data obtained by content analysts in that study. But this is a rare situation.

Comparing Source Activity in Dynamics

Quantitative research results are most evident in the historical perspective. So, if one can analyze the activity of a source in a few years, for several decades, one can imagine what invaluable information we will get about the changed time, about permanent and variable values ​​in journalistic work. That this statement was not unfounded, we shall refer to sociological practice. Comparison of data on public opinion on some problems in the dynamics (that is, when the same problem appears as a question) is always a weighty argument when stating changes in public sentiment.

Sociologists widely use so-called panel surveys - studies, when the same group of people find out, for example, the attitude to radio programs several times over a certain time interval. In this sense, it is fairly widely held among professional sociologists that sociological information does not grow old. Moreover, its value increases over the years. We need only the coincidence of the analysis technique, down to the smallest characteristics of the analyzed object, otherwise it will be possible to compare only the general direction of changes or, conversely, the degree of similarity.

Once again we will say about the importance of a correct presentation of the results of the study. We stressed that this will increase the value of your report for the scientific community. But you still provide reliable information for future researchers who, working on a similar topic, will be able to compare their results with those obtained during your research.

But today's researcher has debts - in front of his predecessors. Not just to enrich your knowledge by getting acquainted with what was achieved earlier. This is also important for more pragmatic purposes: in order to enrich its results, if possible, by comparing it with what was found earlier. And this means prolonging the life of previous studies. This, as we tried to show, significantly diversifies the interpretation of the results.

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