Concepts of Japanese sociocultural identity about...

Concepts of Japanese sociocultural identity about the nature of the "Japanese economic miracle"

The nature of the unique development of Japan until the mid-20th century. - the so-called Japanese economic miracle - is the subject of close attention of researchers of different specialties. Both in Japan itself and in the West, the opinion has already been established that one can not approach the Japanese economy with the traditional standards of Western classical and neoclassical market and free enterprise theories. In the words of one Western theorist, Japanese capitalism is the same organism as the Western one, but existing in another environment. With external resemblance to Western basic institutions and the principles of the functioning of the economy in Japan, it develops in a fundamentally different socio-cultural environment, which determines its originality and dissimilarity to the Western model. To the Japanese economy, in essence, the Western conception of the "economic man", rationally seeking the satisfaction of clearly perceived interests and needs, is inapplicable. The principles of management, business culture demonstrated by Japan, the entire sphere of goal-setting and regulation of economic activity are based on other cultural values, on one's own understanding of the individual, on original forms of thinking and norms of social behavior. In this connection, the most important vector of the study of the nature of the Japanese economic miracle, Japan's development processes as a whole are the sociological concepts of both Japanese and Western researchers themselves.

Interest in their own society and culture, attempts to understand and determine their unique specifics manifested itself in Japan in the 50-60's. XIX century. and expressed itself in the formation and constant development of the theories of "Nihondzin Roi" ( Japanese theories ) and Nichon Bunk Rhone ( Japanese culture theories ). Peaks of interest in original culture fall at extreme moments of history - the rise of national identity and national pride after the victory in the Russo-Japanese War or the crisis after the defeat in World War II, the comprehension of the economic achievements achieved in the 1970s. XX century. and the like.

The most important step in the understanding of Japanese culture was made by the American researcher R. Benedict, who in 1946 published the work "Chrysanthemum and the Sword" that caused a strong resonance in scientific thought. In this study, the typology of "cultures of shame" was grounded. and "cultures of guilt". In cultures of shame or "cultures of external experiences", which include Japanese culture, human behavior is determined by the fear of "loss of face", criticism from other people, the danger of external sanctions. Shadow cultures determine the orientation of the individual to fulfill the duty and responsibilities associated with a specific social status and role. In culture of guilt (which include all Western, and primarily American, culture) behavior is correlated by the individual with universal social and moral values, is assessed on the basis of conformity and is determined by the inner experience of guilt. From the work of R. Benedict clearly followed that the "culture of guilt" stand higher than the "culture of shame."

The typology of "cultures of shame" and cultures of guilt was met with harsh criticism from both Japanese and Western authors for her "Eurocentrism". Indeed, the concept entered into scientific usage at a time when the linear Westernization view of modernization dominated, the tradition was perceived as an inert, hostile force to progress, and Japan, which had just suffered a crushing defeat and was subjected to American occupation, was still far from accomplishing the "economic miracle" .

In the second half of the 70's. XX century. The concept of the sociocultural identity of Japan, called "contextual", has spread. It was formed in the face of new economic and intellectual realities: the West was gripped by a severe economic crisis, from which Japan, which had already made an economic leap, not only got out faster and more painlessly, but managed to expand to Western markets. Westernization theories have already lost their dominant position in public thought, and a rethinking of the role of traditional culture in the modernization process has already arisen, the notion of the possibility of alternative ways of development in the sociocultural plan has already arisen. Contextual concept of Japanese culture was formed as an attempt to understand the prerequisites and mechanism of the economic modernization that has already taken place.

At the heart of the contextual The theory is based on the idea of ​​a radical empiricism of Japanese culture, its orientation to the empirical context and the real situation, to the immediate life experience: the Japanese researcher Hasegawa Nödzekan called it the "civilization of everyday life". Japanese culture accepts the world as the only reality. The Shinto worldview is based on the vitalistic unity of the world, acceptance of it in all variability and diversity, and the borrowed universalistic pictures of the world on Japanese soil were transformed and adapted to meet everyday, terrestrial interests. Even Buddhism on Japanese soil adapted to empirical orientation: Japanese Buddhists seek nirvana "here and now".

The world is accepted as a phenomenological given, in its variability and mobility. If for the Hinduism and Buddhism it is variability, the transient nature of the phenomenal world constitutes the fundamental reason for its denial, then for the Japanese it is variability that is perfect, it is the main value of the world, and this feature of the mentality was most clearly and clearly reflected in Japanese aesthetics.

The world is perceived as integrity. The thinking of the Japanese is characterized by a constant awareness of the context, the perception of the object is not isolated, but through the prism of his place in the system of coordinates of the surrounding reality. And the unity of the world as a whole and of a concrete object always surpasses internal contradictions, therefore rational and emotional, private and general are not contrasted, as is the case in Western culture.

A person in Japanese culture in terms of her contextual concepts is perceived in the fullness of his specific personal characteristics, in the dynamics of the formation of personality. It is accepted as it is, because in Japanese culture, unlike the western one, there are no ideas about absolute moral and spiritual values, there is no absolute evil or sin, as there is no absolute good. Moral categories are defined in relation to the situation, and the existing evil is perceived as an "imperfection" or uncleanness & quot ;, which are amenable to correction.

It is especially important that in a Japanese culture a person is defined not as an isolated individuality, but in combination with his social environment - context, as well as with rank and role in the system of social relations. Accordingly, at the behavioral level, such a person is focused on determining his/her social status, place and role in the existing system of relations and makes every effort to best fit it. Social relations in accordance with the peculiarities of the Japanese mentality are built on the basis of the priority of "humanity" over words, reason, formal laws.

The contextual orientation of Japanese culture has led to its high adaptive capabilities. Self-affirmation of the Japanese is carried out on the basis of adapting to the always concrete realities, taking them for granted. Therefore, the defeat in the Second World War was perceived by the Japanese society not as an excuse for moral and ideological reflection or searching for those responsible for the national catastrophe, but primarily as an incentive for consolidation and the search for real ways out of the impasse. By the early 50's. XX century. a concrete strategy of economic transformations was formulated: improving the quality of output and increasing labor productivity, which has become a mobilizing value and a stimulus for economic activity. The desire to determine its place in the new post-war world realities was realized in conditions of internal unity and consolidation, stemming from the integrity of the social space of Japanese culture and the mass traditional orientation toward state unity and service.

Specific features of Japanese culture - first of all, group orientation, internal hierarchy and dynamism, as well as high adaptive abilities and related diligence, perseverance, passion for study - formed the basis of Japanese management and business culture, degree have ensured the success of economic development.

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