CONCLUSION. Sociolinguistics among other linguistic disciplines
At the beginning of our book, we have already touched on the relationship of sociolinguistics and "clean" linguistics, studying intrastructural relations and processes in language. Obviously, sociolinguistics can not be regarded only as a research direction that only adds a social component to the linguistic interpretation of linguistic phenomena proper. In our textbook, we tried to show how social and structural factors interact with the real functioning of the language. On the one hand, the interaction of the internal laws of language development and functioning with social factors can lead to changes in the mechanisms of action of these patterns. On the other hand, in some areas (for example, in grammar) the language system is so self-sufficient and internally stable that it is almost impenetrable for social influences. And no matter how hard we try add social component in the characteristics of the intrinsic properties, say, of the United States verb or ergative constructions of the Caucasian languages, a sociolinguistic description does not come out of this. The internal structure of language is the object of linguistic research proper. And sociolinguistics is focused on the functional side of the language, on its use in a different social environment and diverse communicative situations.
Sociolinguistics is in certain relations with other areas of linguistics - both traditional, for example, with dialectology, phonetics, and new, for example, with psycholinguistics, the theory of speech acts.
In dialectologists, sociolinguists have borrowed many methods and techniques for observing spontaneous speech of informants, ways to "talk" interlocutor, to provoke him to use the language facts necessary for the researcher. The term informant is a person whose speech and linguistic self-consciousness is studied by a researcher as a representative of a certain social environment. He came to sociolinguistics, as well as to other empirical branches of linguistics from dialectology (in informant sociology they are called respondents, and in this text we also used this term).
With reference to the study of "urban" language formations - koin, vernacular, jargon - ED Polivanov wrote about the need to create a social dialectology (along with traditional dialectology, which -
Paradise is engaged in rural dialects). In the pioneering works of BA Larin, who gave impetus to the study of the language of the city (Larin, 1928, pp. 1931), many ideas came from dialectology, because in both cases oral non-standard speech is studied using methods that systematically monitor this speech and direct contact between the researcher and the informant.The influence of dialectology has also been experienced by sociolinguistics in other national conditions, for example, in the USA, Germany, France, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, in Africa and South-East Asia and in other regions of the world.
At the present stage of its development, sociolinguistics not only borrows ideas and methods from dialectology, but also itself influences this linguistic discipline. This concerns, for example, a more detailed social certification of informants (that is, fixing not only their age and gender but also other long-term role characteristics), as well as earlier, taking into account the situational conditions in which some or other observations of dialect speech , methods of using sound recording equipment.
Special relations develop in sociolinguistics with phonetics. As is known, the first sociolinguistic studies were performed on phonetic material (see the works of U. Labov, MV Panova, and others). Many theoretical propositions of modern sociolinguistics concerning the social conditioning of linguistic changes, the influence of social factors on the variability of language and so-called, were formulated on the basis of a careful analysis of precisely socio-phonetic relationships and dependencies. The result of close cooperation between sociolinguists and phonetists was the formation of a special branch in the study of phonetic phenomena - sociophonetics.The links of sociolinguistics to lexicology and lexical semantics are undoubted, since the vocabulary of the language most responsive to changes in social life and reflects the differentiation of society into groups (for example, in the form of lexical and lexical-semantic jargon and other socially marked categories of words). The social can influence the semantics of the word so deeply that, as we found out, social components and constraints can be found in the structure of the lexical meaning and in the rules for the semantic compatibility of words. The study of such phenomena is engaged in socio-semantics - a direction that emerged at the junction of sociolinguistics and semantics.
In relatively recent times, many problems of stylistics began to be interpreted from sociolinguistic positions. For example, the division of the literary language into functional styles has under itself only proper linguistic and communicative grounds (for different purposes of communication different language tools are used), but also social causes. So, the choice of linguistic means, including those having different stylistic characteristics and belonging to different functional varieties of language, depends on social factors: on the status of the speaker and his interlocutor, on their social roles, and on the situation of communication. Obviously, for example, that in its social environment, a person is more free to use stylistically lowered funds than when communicating with an unfamiliar interlocutor, in formal situations, with a significant social "distance" with the addressee of speech (about this in paragraph 2.2). The need to study the history of words and their functioning in a social context was drawn by Academician VV Vinogradov, who wrote: "The word is poured by expressive colors of the social environment" (Vinogradov, 1972, p. 21).
Psycholinguistics is another branch of linguistics with which sociolinguistics has common ground. These scientific disciplines are almost the same age: experts call 1954 the year the very term of psycholinguistics appeared, although ideas related to the problem of "language and thinking" were expressed much earlier (Leont'ev, 1990).
The main difference between psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics is that the former studies the human speech activity in its conditioning by mental processes, while the latter is interested in social differences in the functioning and development of language. But these sciences are similar, but methods of data collection (observation, experimentation, questioning, etc.), by methods of working with informants, and also for some research interests. Psycholinguists, for example, study the mechanisms of code switching, in which they are primarily interested in psychological reasons that encourage the speaker to move from one communicative system to another. One of the main directions of psycholinguistic research is language socialization and the processes of child adoption of the native language. For sociolinguistics it is also an object of analysis - with an emphasis on its social aspects.
Recently, the circle of interests of sociolinguistics involves such problems, which are more naturally considered within psycholinguistics. It is, for example, the psychological characteristics of interpersonal communication - language courtesy, tactics of choosing speech behavior in communicative acts of request, apology, accusation and so-called. This trend in sociolinguistic research has received the name of interactive sociolinguistics (Vakhtin, Golovko, 2004, pp. 226-242).
In solving some of its problems, sociolinguistics intersects with ethnolinguistics. which "studies the language in its relation to culture, the interaction of linguistic, ethnocultural and ethnopsychological factors in the functioning and development of the language" (Kuznetsov, 1990, p. 597). For example, the problems of bilingualism and multilingualism, which are traditionally considered to be the object of sociolinguistic research, often require an integrated approach that takes into account not only linguistic and social factors, but also the culture of the people, the national specificity of the linguistic picture of the world, ethnically conditioned stereotypes of speech behavior, and so on.
An example of combining sociolinguistic and ethnolinguistic approaches to the analysis of the facts of language can be the study of so-called ethnostereotypes - words and expressions that reflect the standard representation that exists among the majority of people making up this or that ethnos about people belonging to another or their own ethnos. In United States it is, for example, such expressions: American efficiency, English stiffness, with German accuracy & lt; meticulousness, & gt ;, United States scope, comparative speed: precise, like a German, as cold as an Englishman, silent like a Finn, etc. The linguistic expression of ethnostereotypes is characterized by generalization and hyperbolization of various properties. This purpose is served, in particular, by quantifier words like: everything (All Czechs love beer, all United States women are fat), always (the German is always punctual), never (Englishmen will never enter the age-old traditions for the sake of dubious innovations of modern civilization), each Asian - a polygamist, Every American has a car, or even two), any (At the Brazilians any child plays football better than our master).
Cases of exploratory attention are cases of portable use of certain ethnonyms or words denoting representatives of any race. For example, the word Negro in United States colloquial speech is used in the meaning of 'a man who is hard and does not have any rights working for another' (I found a Negro: I'll look for him, and he will rake money!). Portable values have also some adjectives, formed either from ethnonyms, or from names of countries and continents; Wed: Asian in the meaning of 'uncultured, rude man', Asian 'wild, rough' (compare also derivative Asian), use of words African, Chinese as part of sustained turns African passions, Chinese diploma, Chinese ceremonies and some others. At the heart of such portable applications, as it is quite obvious, are certain ideas about the emotional world, the nature of the mentality or the cultural traditions of certain peoples.The researcher of ethnostereotypes can not pass by the peculiar implicatures, which in an implicitly expressed form contain certain opinions about a certain ethnos and about the characteristic properties of its representatives (Krysin, 2003). Compare the statements of the type: Katya got married. Her husband is a Jew, but a good man, "He is United States, although he does not drink.
As a rule, stereotyped ideas about people of a different nation and other culture, embodied in linguistic expressions, are "distributed" on different social strata and groups: in one environment in the course of one expression, in another - different. For example, offensive nicknames such as nigger, chuchmek, chock, etc. more often people of young and middle age - representatives of the urban population engaged in the field of physical labor, trade, business. Expressions such as Chinese ceremonies, leave in English (without saying goodbye) in greater motion among the intelligentsia. The study of such social differences in the use of ethnostereotypes is one of the tasks of sociolinguistics.
When studying the culture of a particular people, reflected in customs and traditions, in various genres of folklore, ethnolinguistics analyzes the linguistic side of these cultural phenomena,
Meat through the tongue reach their origins. Such, for example, are the studies of Academician NI Tolstoy and his students in the field of Slavic languages and folk Slavic culture. In this case, both linguistic and sociolinguistic methods are used, since it is necessary to work not only with texts, but also with informants-carriers of ethno-cultural traditions representing different social strata of the studied people (Tolstoy, 1998-1999).
Sociolinguistics is in active cooperation with a completely new discipline - corpus linguistics. In paragraph 5.4 it was said that the language of private correspondence and diary entries of "average" native speakers is of special interest in the study of social language options, and in identifying new trends in its development. The wide spread of the Internet has led to the spontaneous folding in it of just such cases with a volume of billions of usages. Social lexicography has received inexhaustible material for research, and it is already actively involved in the objective description of the entire diversity of the United States lexicon in territorial, age, gender and other social dimensions (Belikov, 2010, Belikov, 2014).
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