The implementation of the coordination function, the essence of which is to ensure the interaction and interest of the performers, is a logical continuation of the implementation of previous functions. After creating an organizational structure, attracting the necessary personnel and ensuring competitive conditions for its activities, the management of the organization should focus on the implementation of the adopted plans.
Leadership and leadership
Since there are formal and informal structures in the organization, it is customary in the United States government to distinguish the phenomena of leadership and leadership. The head as an official is appointed and is the link between the object of the leadership and the higher official authorities. He organizes the implementation of organizational plans with reliance on formal relations and official power - traditionally legitimate, power of reward and coercion. The leader himself takes on managerial functions to address the actual - individual (professional, communicative, recreational, etc.) or complex organizational problems. It uses: expert power based on professional competence; The reference authority based on charisma and authority; indirect power based on persuading and attracting people to their side, as well as manipulating them. Of course, these types of power can be used by the head.
Obviously, a modern leader should strive to combine leadership and leadership. In addition, leadership as an informal organizational phenomenon is more the subject of social psychology (the psychology of small groups) and the theory of organizational behavior. Therefore, further we will pay special attention to the theories of leadership that are most often used in the practice of managing organizations.
The first systematic studies of leadership and leadership were undertaken in the second third of the last century under the theory of features . From the point of view of this theory, there is a certain set of specific features of the leader, which predetermine the success of its activities. Based on this, it followed the need to survey a sufficient number of successful managers and determine the most relevant list of features for the selection and training of managers. As a result, a lot of such lists were compiled with a different number of features - from a few to several tens. For example, L. Bernard, V. Binham and their colleagues distinguished the following groups of traits: abilities (mental and verbal), achievements (education, experience), responsibility, participation (activity, ability to cooperate), socio-economic status. In the late 1940's. R. Stogdill, summarizing the data of 120 studies, first, found out that the most significant features of the leader are intellect, aspiration for knowledge, reliability, responsibility, activity, social participation and socio-economic status, and, secondly, found that in different managerial situations, effective leaders have different characteristics.
In the second half of the last century, due to the intensive development of the behaviourist school, there are numerous behavioral management theories . They proceed from the fact that the effectiveness of the leader depends on the manner of his behavior in relation to to the subordinates. However, back in the late 1930's. K. Levin called this style a style of leadership and identified three of the most typical styles used by leaders. These are authoritarian and democratic styles, respectively, meaning the general commitment of the head of the theory of "X" or theory Y D. McGregor (see paragraph 1.2), as well as liberal - the delegating-non-confusing style, which, however, is not so important for understanding the determinants of effective leadership. Other theories were created in the Levine key. Thus, R. Laikert singled out an exploitative-authoritarian, benevolent-authoritarian, consultative-democratic style and a participatory style; S. Fleming suggested distinguishing seven styles, representing a continuum between autocratic and liberal styles of leadership. Which of these styles are most effective? R. Tannenbaum and W. Schmidt believe that the choice of style depends on the availability of time for decision-making, the degree of certainty of the tasks, the qualifications and motivation of the staff. Therefore, the head should combine different styles, which, incidentally, pointed out and K. Levin.
The next step in the development of behavioral theories was the research of scientists from Ohio State University and the University of Texas, who created a two-factor theory of leadership. According to this theory, in the version of the Texas professors R. Blake and J. Mouton, the style of the leader is characterized by the concentration of more or less attention of the leader to the problems of production and to people. Emphasis on production means reliance on formal power, which minimizes production errors. Attention to people reduces the possibility of using formal power, but increases their satisfaction with work. Obviously, both these ways, each in its own way, can ensure the effectiveness of leadership. In addition, both these orientations coexist simultaneously (and not as authoritarian and democratic alternatives), but in varying degrees (Figure 7.2).
Fig. 7.2. Blake-Mowton Management Grid
The next time of creating an approach to the problem of leadership are situational theories in which an attempt is made to show the relationship between the effectiveness of a particular leadership style and various organizational and managerial situations.
According to the probabilistic theory of the effectiveness of F. Fiedler's leadership , the leader can be predominantly focused on the task or on relations with subordinates. At the same time, the manager may have different degrees of control over the actual organizational situation, which consists of the breadth of his powers, the positivity of his relationships with his subordinates, and the structured nature of the tasks being accomplished. According to Fiedler (Figure 7.3), the task-oriented leader is most effective in cases of low and high control over the situation, and the relationship-oriented leader is in the case of an average level of control. Since orientation is determined by personal characteristics and it is difficult to change, the leader should adapt the situation to his management style.
Fig. 7.3. Effectiveness of the guide on F. Fiedler
In the life cycle theory P. Hersey and K. Blanchard situational factor is the maturity of the performers (Figure 7.4). The stages of their maturity are interpreted as follows: M1 - people are not able and do not want to work; M2 - people are not capable, but they want to work; M3 - people are capable, but do not want to work; M4 - people are able and willing to work. The most effective leadership styles for each stage of staff maturity are shown in the figure below the curve. It should also be noted that, according to Hersi and Blanchard, the maturity of the staff is rather related not to the personal qualities of people, but to the complexity of the tasks they perform and the moral and psychological climate in the organization.
Fig. 7.4. The effectiveness of the Hersey Blanchard Guide
The situational approach includes other theories, but considered enough to understand its basic ideas. In the last decades of the last century, several theories and models have been created that are difficult to unequivocally attribute to any one methodological direction. Among them, D. Graen's theory of dyadic exchange, attributive theory of S. Green and T. Mitchell, "implicit theory" the leadership of E. Hollander and D. Julian. Particularly should be highlighted theories created in the context of the idea of combining the phenomena of leadership and leadership. For example, the model of the transforming (transformational) guide B. Bass combines two groups of components.
The first and the main group are the transforming (leadership) components:
• idealizing influence on subordinates (charisma);
• inspiring motivation for their activity;
• intellectual stimulation of subordinates (their motivation to reflect the actual state and prospects of the organization's development);
• Individualized attention to each subordinate.
The second group is traditional components:
• Proportional remuneration of performers (in accordance with their expectations and contribution to the solution of organizational tasks);
• active management by correction (deviations from accepted organizational rules and standards);
• passive control by correction (non-interference in the activities of subordinates until their mistakes start to threaten serious problems);
• connivial leadership (evasion from the performance of their duties).
The theories and models examined by us are actively used in management practice and have a widely approved methodological base - diagnostic and research questionnaires and scales, as well as training algorithms for training managers.
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