Walt Whitman Rostow was an American economist who done expansion and development. He was an economist who thinks the growth and the development of the society is possible through the capitalist mode of development and the free market policy. He was a convinced liberal which he portrayed in the dedication on the development and his anti-communism (Simon 2006). Rostow reveals his manifesto as the choice to the Marxism (Gustafsson 1961). He has put forward the phases of economic expansion by which every country passes for modernization of the producing countries. He also forwarded the transformation of the development from one country to another by copy of technology and investment from developed north to the expanding south which would help in development of south. Rostow assumed that the Marxist was failed because he neglected agriculture and then the forces should be utilized to gain the periods of the economic development that he has defined (Simon 2006).
The level of development is the model Rostow has developed to show the way the countries goes by to modernization through different levels he has developed five stages by which each countries goes by for the monetary modernization of any region. These five stages are
The traditional society
The precondition for take-off
Drive to maturity
Age of high mass consumption
Rostow states that each country passes through these periods linearly and lay out the conditions more likely to occur in terms of investment, consumption and social developments at each point out. However it is not certain that all the conditions are would have to be fulfilled to go from one level to some other and enough time it takes can vary greatly countries to countries.
The traditional society
This is the primitive stage of growth. This era are proclaimed by the pre Newtonian research and technology. The improvement in any financial sector was limited. Though the progress was done with the improvement but the progress has the threshold limit to which it could not increase. It got a self sustained production. Due to low production of agriculture that they had to spend high percentage of resources in it (Rostow 1960). Through the period interpersonal and the politics vitality as laid in few peoples who managed the land.
The precondition for take off
This is the transitional period or stage where society moves from traditional level to the remove stage through research and technology in the sector of agriculture and industry. The essential requirements or infra framework that are required for modernization of the united states such as transportation, communication gets developed. The state must play a essential role for the development of these sectors. The precondition for takeoff was basically reliant on creation of social over head capital such as road, railway etc (Rostow 1960). Rostow argues for the change from traditional modern culture to take off period there is need of communal change from regional social monetary and political setting to the national level. The predominance in agriculture should alter towards industries and business, so that new entrepreneurs evolve and could take the risk.
Take off stage
This is the third level that the Rostow clarifies is the time when the road blocks to development are completely removed and the production goes up and expands. The introduction of the social over head capital, scientific, and political is the key focus in the takeoff stage. The main essential aspect is saving above the investment although high investment in social overhead capital that could be invested. He assumes about 10% of saving on the Gross National Product (GNP) and reinvests them for the financial development.
The drive to maturity
When the takeoff stage continue with the sustainable economic expansion for a long time period then only this stage comes. Within this level the investment rate should be 10-20 % of countrywide investment so that it could outstrip the populace growth. In this stage investment should be achieved in all and produce every things needed for the society. The new industries are proven that are capable of producing the goods that supports the agriculture and the other economical industries for e. g. Fertilizer, agricultural equipment etc. The professional sectors improve and produce the products that are imported and also produce the products for exporting it to the international countries.
The years of high mass consumption
The last level age group of high mass intake is the time where the state moves to the welfare point out. People have usage of the products and services beyond the basic fundamental need. The concentration in this stage is on the development of goods and services. More investment flows on the security and interpersonal welfare of contemporary society.
Rostow in his book has explained the experience as a white man. It appears that he wishes to impose the idea to rest of the world. He has considered western culture as the model for his theory, and has not stated about the contemporary society with different social and cultural background. The transformation of the development from these developed nations might not favour the social, cultural and geographical condition of the growing countries. He hasn't taken into account the ethnical, environment, social distinctions between this developed north and the producing south. He also offers talked about about the countries with the sufficient labor force, natural resources can make the continual development. Many countries today seem to be to follow the random series of the levels which confuses that in which stage their state is, plus some has skipped the stage to gain the very best economic development. What I believe this theory has the compatibility problem with the other countries and other countries has different constrain for development.
Critical discourse of Shiva's views on european science as a patriarchal job. Discuss whether you trust her or not and present reasons.
Shiva vandana, a philosopher, an eco feminist, on her behalf book "Staying Alive" creates about the western development as a patriarchal job. She says development is a post colonial task which is used as a model by the entire world for progress without knowing the subjugation and the exploitation the colonization brings (Shiva 1988). She works out upon this book from the point of view of eco feminism and has connected the exploitation of girl and aspect by the development activities in the name of improvement which is reinforcing themself. She has also equated character with feminism theory and argued women performs crucial role in preserving of character. The patriarchal plans are growing throughout the growing region inspite feminist movements.
Development is compared with the economic improvement, in conditions of need, of produce and of development, which utilizes patriarchal tools to subjugate countries, ethnicities, people, and especially women. Development can be done by colonization and colonization helps in capital deposition. This will not only create wealth but also create poverty and dispossession (Shiva 1988). So the people struggle for the freedom from colonization and development. The dominating stream of knowledge is created by particular group with this response. Shiva has followed the originator of modern industrial research, Francis bacon's experimental science as central to development of masculinities science(Shiva 1988). He dichotomized between male and female as mind and subject, subjective and objective, rational and mental. Within these dissimilarities bacon associated female with the weaker or more irrational part of these and man were likened as strong, mind and logical. Shiva so feels that knowledge should be viewed as sexist metaphor not really a natural, objective and science should be looked at as "the masculine mode of aggregation against character and domination over women" (Shiva 1988). Shiva, with the words of bacon clarifies science as the form of patriarchal violence against aspect and women. Bacons model of modern science conceptualizes the type and its own inquiry as means of rape and torture. The mechanical invention produced by the discipline of science will not only have influence on character it can have a severe effect on nature and can change the course of characteristics. "They have a power to take and subdue her to tremble her foundations. " (Shiva 1988).
What do you understand by Gramsci's concept of hegemony and counter hegemony? Discuss the idea of hegemony and counter hegemony in the framework of globalization.
Gramsci was an Italian political leader of communist get together and an activist who was simply sentenced twenty years imprisonment by the fascist in 1926. He is person who is closely related to the idea of hegemony which in 19th century was thought as "political predominance, usually of one point out over another". But Gramsci, here hegemony means the domination of ruling course on the working course. Hegemony utilizes the legislative and professional power to keep up with the ascendance of prominent elite. Relating to Gramsci, the intellectual first sustain dominant either by creating or popularizing themselves and then convincing the oppressed that they can favor and can not oppose or the subordination of the oppressor. And make them feel that their servitude is inevitable, suitable and simply. Like this a social form is obtained with some individuals in electricity and practicing power to keep other in affect of the people the folks. Gramsci clarifies that the hegemony is not intentionally developed by people it was slowly but surely produced by institutionalization and was used with the everyday experience. So then by the development of consciousness one of the ruling class then they developed hegemonic idea that your masses accepts the existing politics situation and the oppression from the ruling school. Relating to Gramsci, hegemony was popularized by the old traditional intellectuals through their control over the establishment as in chapel, express (Amoore 2005).
The concept of hegemony that Gramsci points out can never be complete because it needs the contribution of subordinate group and while putting into action, defending and maintaining hegemony there produces intellectual who issues it (Amoore 2005). There evolves another kind of intellectual with a innovative thoughts from one of the subordinate school. These groups of individuals gather and convince mass of individuals to develop a pressure to contrary to the hegemony. They develop awareness among the general population who are oppressed and they are mindful about the oppression from the elite they would revolt against the prevailing hegemony. They might uproot the prevailing hegemony and they will create a new environment ruled by the employee. The counter hegemonic ideology developed from the hegemonic of traditional intellectual with the capitalist system will brought to an end.
Gramsci along with his concept of hegemony has provided four main equipment that are useful for current days and nights for defending Marxism today and also to set up and develop the movements today to fight the crisis today. These four main elements that people can sketch with the Gramsci's concept of hegemony are
Centrality of politics
Hegemony or management is always in even or implicitly unstated form is political, this means there must be one to take the management and take the position politically to lead folks. And these people in the political authority should be act responsibly on the people and the working school of the population. They must be able to provide management to the broader aspect of the modern culture.
Necessity of the management of the working class movement
Gramsci is aware of that the present day economy is dependant on the exploitation of the labour. Therefore with the business of those who require in the beneficial labour force then they would be able to organize the genuine change of the culture.
Necessity for clear political program
This will not only suggest to the political programs to oppose the political level of resistance of the working course but also a positive policies and programs that would give an alternative solution to the working class people by the ruling school.
Necessity of creating concrete institution
This is necessary to expand the capability open to the people of working class for democratic contribution. He is not only simply concern with hegemony led In abstract he is also nervous about building the establishment enable individuals to take part in own emancipation.
Amoore, L. (2005). The global amount of resistance reader, Routledge.
Gustafsson, B. (1961). "Rostow, Marx and the idea of Economic Expansion. " Technology & Contemporary society: 229-244.
Rostow, W. (1960). The Phases of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto, Cambridge, Cambridge School Press: 4-7.
Shiva, V. (1988). Keeping yourself alive: Women, ecology, and development, Zed literature.
Simon, D. (2006). Fifty key thinkers on development, Taylor & Francis.
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