Diglossia and bilingualismThe terms described above, which designate subsystems of the national language, indicate that natural languages are fundamentally heterogeneous: they exist in many varieties, the formation and functioning of which are determined by the social differentiation of society and the variety of its communicative needs.
Some of these species have their own carriers, i.e. a set of speakers who know only a given subsystem of the national language (territorial dialect, vernacular). Other varieties are not the only, but an additional means of communication. For example, a student uses student jargon primarily in his environment, in communication with their own kind, and in other situations
resorts to the means of the literary language. The same is true with respect to professional jargons: computer programmers and computer operators use computer jargon in informal communication on professional topics, and when they go beyond their professional environment, they use words and constructions of general literary language.Similar ownership of different subsystems of one national language and their use depending on the situation or sphere of communication is called intralinguistic diglossia (diglossia - from Greek 81- 'two (x) -' and ulsoaaa 'language', literally - 'bilingualism') .
In addition, diglossia can also mean the possession of different languages - also depending on the situation and the sphere of communication; At the same time, in "responsible", socially significant communication situations, as a rule, "prestigious" is chosen; language (for example, one that has the status of a state), and in less "responsible" situations (for example, in family and domestic communication), preference can be given to a language that does not have an official status, but is well-acquainted with the speaker (for example, the language learned from childhood).
The term diglossia in 1959, the American researcher Ch. Ferguson (Ferguson, 1959, Ferguson, 2012) introduced into scientific circulation. Prior to that, linguistics used (and continues to be used now) the term bilingualism - as a United States translation of the international term "bilingualism". And for situations in which several languages can function, the term multilingualism (compare English, multilingualism, French plurilinguisme).
Before trying to figure out why the new concept of diglossia was required, let's take a closer look at what lies behind the term "bilingualism".
Bilingualism and multilingualism, as follows from the literal meaning of these terms, is the existence and functioning within one society (usually the state) of two or more languages. Many modern countries are bilingual or multilingual: Russia (compare the existence on its territory, along with United States, of such languages as Bashkir, Tatar, Yakut, Buryat, Ossetian, etc.), countries of Africa, Southeast Asia, India and others
The functioning of two or more languages in society would be impossible without the bilingualism of individual members of the language community (even if the individual has several languages, it is often called bilingual, and the phenomenon itself is bilingualism, or bilingualism).
There are three main types of individual bilingualism.
With subordinate bilingualism, speakers perceive the second language through the prism of the native: the concepts correspond with the lexical units of the native language, and the latter - with units of the second language. Because of the natural difference between the semantic structures of the two languages, errors in the type of anecdotal translation of the United States dialogue are inevitable in the generation and perception of the text in the second language: What is the time? - Two hours. - So much? - To whom as: Which watch? - Two watch. - Such much? - Whom how.
With coordinating (pure) bilingualism, the two languages are completely autonomous, each has its own set of concepts, grammar -
Skis category of the two languages are also independent. Mixed bilingualism ideally means a single mechanism of analysis and synthesis of speech, and coexisting languages differ only at the level of surface structures. L. V. Shcherba called such a communicative system in one language with two terms. Of course, a really complete isomorphism of the grammar systems of the two languages is not observed, only their more or less likening takes place. The dictionary can indeed be one in terms of content, differing only in the expression plan.
One of the authors of this textbook during the field work in the village. Lezhdug Komi ASSR in 1968 received a recording of the fisherman's story in his native language Komi about how the networks entangled ringed duck-teal. The last sentence looked like this: Snimitt Ringsee and recognizes that Chirokus Zimuytema of France. "We took off the ring and found out that the Teal was wintering [earlier, pre-passed time] in France." Here the carrier of mixed bilingualism, with complete preservation of the morphology of the Komi language, is completely free and unconscious (it is significant that the text was written by him!) Uses United States vocabulary. In other contexts, in the values remove & quot ;, learn & quot ;, winterize he could use the appropriate units from the ethnic language: boshnny, tddny, tbvyyny.
Three distinguished types of bilingualism, of course, represent ideal simplifications; the real bilingual is dominated by one of them. Subordinative bilingualism by its nature is a secondary, part-ownership of a second language and bilingual typical for beginners, but already in the early stages of language learning it is accompanied by elements of coordinative bilingualism and mixed. With effective bilingualism, co-ordinate and mixed bilingualism (and often subordinate elements) coexist with one of them predominant.
Normally bilingualism is productive, i.e. bilingual is able to actively use the second language. A special case of bilingualism is passive (receptive) bilingualism - such possession of the second language, when the individual understands it, but does not actually produce texts on it. For two-sided passive bilingualism, when each of the communicants uses their own language, but understands the language of the other, sometimes the term dualizingism (English, dual-lingualism) (Lincoln, 1979). This phenomenon is more common at the boundaries of the distribution of different (as a rule, related) languages.
Typically, bilinguals have at least one language in their entirety. However, there are cases when the communication of an individual with native speakers of his native language is limited, and the level of communicative interaction with native speakers of the language dominating the language community is low. In such a situation, adequate knowledge of the native language is lost, and the second language is developed within limited limits. This phenomenon was called semilingualism (English, semilingualism). The lexical composition of both languages is limited, and the grammatical structure is simplified (Polyanskaya, 1987). For semi-lingualism, as for subordinate bilingualism, code switching is not typical.
Unlike bilingualism, diglossia denotes such a form of ownership of two independent languages or subsystems of one language,
under which these languages and subsystems are functionally distributed, for example, in official situations - lawmaking, record keeping, correspondence between state institutions, etc. - official (or state) language is used, in the case of a multilingual society, or the literary form of the national language (in monolingual societies), and in situations of everyday, everyday, family communication, other languages that do not have official or governmental status, subsystems - dialect, vernacular, jargon.
An important condition for diglossia is the fact that the speakers make a conscious choice between different communication tools and use the one that is best able to ensure the success of communication. From this it is clear that bilingualism is necessarily accompanied by diglossia - although rarely, but bilingual languages can not be distributed in any way in accordance with the communicative situation. The code repertoire of a monolingual individual can be extremely limited, and in different communicative situations he will use the same language subsystem. In this case, we can talk about its monoglass.
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