Dramaturgical Sociology - History of Sociology

Dramaturgical Sociology

Erwin Goffman , the student of Meade, is considered the creator of dramaturgical sociology - one of the varieties of symbolic interactionism and understanding sociology. In E. Hoffman, the world of human interaction is the field of the game, the design of which must be established through sociological research. At the heart of the socio-dramatic perspective is the comparison of the everyday world with the theatrical action.

In the dramatic concept, the starting point is the metaphor of social teamwork of people: society is a huge theater. When communicating, people try to impress each other. As a rule, this happens unconsciously. At the same time, the roles that people play, the poses they take can be viewed as typical social representations, i.e. symbolic notation of arrangements between people about the mode of behavior. The teamwork of members of society is manifested as one large symbolic joint action, and society as a series of situations in which people interact, make an impression and explain their behavior to themselves and others.

Goffman presented social interaction as a continuous series of small dramas that happen to each of us and where we, as actors, play ourselves. As a drama can manifest themselves not only household quarrels, squabbles or conflicts, where a surge of emotions and passions reaches, it seems, its apogee. Any everyday event is essentially a dramatic idea, as we, even in the circle of loved ones, constantly put on and remove social masks, create scenarios for each of the following situations and play it according to unwritten social rules created by traditions and customs or by our imagination and imagination. Having entered into a conflict, the husband, wife, child or mother-in-law stubbornly adhere to the social roles prescribed to them, which often contradict their own interests. Answering the accusations of the wife that the husband has almost ceased to be at home and to see his children, he defends himself by exposing himself as a good performer of the role of the father or husband, and attacking his wife, tries to find the same role disadvantages: she is bad a housewife or an unassuming mother.

Goffman Erving (1922-1982) is an American sociologist, sociolinguist and social psychologist of Canadian descent, professor of the universities of Chicago, California, Pennsylvania. The most influential representative of microsociology, the creator of the so-called sociodramaturgic approach, is one of the brightest figures of symbolic interactionism; representative of the second generation of the Chicago School in Sociology. He received his bachelor's degree from the University of Toronto (1945), master's degree (1949) and doctor of science (1953) at the University of Chicago. Ethnographic material for the thesis and his first book. "Introducing yourself to others in your daily life" (1959), translated into 10 languages ​​of the world, collected in the Shetland Islands (Atlantic Ocean). The title of full professor was in 1962 at the University of California (Berkeley). In 1968 he became a professor of sociology and anthropology at the University of Pennsylvania, in 1977 he was awarded the Guggenheim Society Prize, in 1981-1982. was president of the American Sociological Association. Author of 11 monographs

The most significant contribution is the study of the symbolic interaction in the game form. Basic research methods: included observation, document analysis, case study. The selection and analysis of statistical data was preferred by included observation and qualitative methodology.

One of the first he began to study interpersonal interaction, or microsociology, to develop in detail a dramaturgic approach to human interaction. Beginning with his early works, he interprets social life as a metaphor for the theater, analyzes the way people play social roles and manage the impression they exert on each other. The term "dramaturgy" was used to denote the technique of controlling impression.

Any person in one day is involved in several "life theaters" at once. " - in the family, on the street, in the transport, the shop, at work. Change of scaffolding, like the change of roles, brings dynamics to everyday existence, honing our social professionalism. The more we participate in more social groups and situations, the more social roles we perform. But unlike the literary theater, in the theater of life the end of the play is not known and it can not be re-played anew. In life, many dramas are associated with a serious risk, sometimes with a risk to life, and most of them unfold according to an unknown scenario for the actors.

The theater of life has its own drama, which is best described by the philosophy of existentialism. Analyzing border situations where a person has to accept the challenge of fate, solve such problem situations that are associated with the choice to live or die, E. Goffman invades the traditional field of existential sociology. Existentialists define the act of social action as a free choice of a person in a border situation, i.e. in fatal circumstances, where the individual either defends his right to exist, or this does not happen.

In the book "Therapeutic: reflections on social situations among mental patients" (1961) E. Hoffman outlined his concept of a total institution, which enrolled prisons, army organizations and mental hospitals.

thematic pictures

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