Dynamics of migration - Demography

Dynamics of migration

In past centuries, migration occurred spontaneously on a huge scale, usually in connection with the development of new lands or the seizure of foreign territories. At present, the level of economic development of the country, ethnopolitical and interethnic conflicts, ecological catastrophes have a significant impact on migration processes. The modern world is characterized by global migration processes. Specialists characterize the XX century. as an era of international migration.

According to experts, over the past 50 years, the number of migrants living outside their countries has increased from 75 million to 145 million people. Today every 44th inhabitant of the planet lives outside of his former homeland. The main vector of international migration is directed to resettlement from countries economically poorly developed to countries with a higher standard of living. Most of all immigrants (as a percentage of the population of the country) are registered in Luxembourg (56.2%), Australia (24%), France (20.1%), Switzerland (19.4%), Canada (18, 5%) and the United States (9.3%). Migration processes are heterogeneous, in each country they have their own specifics.

In the dynamics of modern international migration, the following trends stand out:

- the globalization of migration processes

- qualitative changes in migration flows;

- the predominance of labor migration;

- increase in illegal migration;

- extension of the geography of forced migration.

The globalization of migration processes is manifested in the involvement of almost all states of the world in them on a significant scale. So, in 2013 the number of international migrants exceeded 1.1 billion people. According to experts, 214 million people. left for other countries for permanent residence, 250 million people. - labor migrants with members of their families, from 25 to 50 million people. - illegal migrants, 25 million people. - seasonal migrants, more than 50 million people. - forced migrants. Changes in the processes of global migration are associated with an increase in the number of educated and highly qualified people among migrants.

Currently, 2/3 of migrants in the world are labor migrants. If in 1960 in the world labor market they were 3.2 million people, in 2012 - more than 100 million people. The main centers where migrants seek are the USA, Canada, Australia. After the end of the Second World War, the countries of Europe from the world supplier of labor turned into its consumer. After the collapse of the USSR, Russia became one of the major consumers of labor on the Eurasian continent, especially from the former union republics. From an economic point of view, labor migration for donor countries has a positive value: foreign currency transfers sent home. From a demographic position, labor migration for these states has negative consequences: a decrease in the marriage rate and birth rate, an increase in the number of divorces. Despite the fact that illegal migration is illegal, its scale is increasing and profitable primarily for entrepreneurs, because they allow them to use cheap and powerless labor and extract the maximum profit from it. Russia, however, has the second largest number of illegal migrants in the world after the United States. Economically, illegal migration for the host country is unprofitable, as the state loses significant amounts of money to the budget in connection with the evasion of illegal migrants from taxes. One of the tendencies of the world migration process is the increase in the number of women in it. By the beginning of the XXI century. the share of women emigrating to developed countries exceeded 50%. The number of women in the labor migration flows from the Philippines, Indonesia, Peru and Eastern Europe is especially large (more than 60%).

Predictable migrants, especially refugees, have a significant impact on the demographic situation in the country, the tendency to increase in the last 10 years is maintained due to the expansion in the world of armed clashes and exacerbation of interethnic and religious conflicts. The disintegration of Yugoslavia and the USSR, political, ethnic and religious conflicts in South-East Asia and Ukraine, leading to the death of thousands of people, make the civilian population seek refuge, as a rule, in neighboring countries. So, in connection with the events in Syria, since 2011, more than 2.5 million citizens have left the countries. Only in the first three months of the military conflict in Ukraine in 2014, Russia received more than 800 thousand refugees. Large refugee flows have a significant economic burden on the receiving side. The cost of maintaining and registering the status of refugees can be estimated at millions of dollars.

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