10.3. Economic foundations of power social assistance
Redistribution processes are continuously occurring in the society, as a result of which material values, means of production, treasures change their owners, pass from one source to another. Redistribution can be mandatory when its subject is the state; voluntary, when resources are redistributed through charity; economic - on the basis of the interests of the subjects of commodity-money relations; criminal, when resources are seized by illegal means, etc.
The state uses the mechanism of redistribution as a way of ensuring public needs. The redistribution of income and wealth by the state reflects the society's views on social justice, national solidarity in this historical period.
The redistribution equalizes the incomes of the members of society, transfers the material benefits from the most well-off social strata to the least well-off, favors the development of social infrastructure and increases the availability of social services, counteracts the growth of poverty, accumulates funds for other social needs (law enforcement, defense, and so on).
At the heart of social assistance is also redistribution. Each institute, the subject of social assistance, has its own way of redistribution, inherent only to it, which provides the economic basis for the social assistance generated by it. Power reproduces an imperious way of redistribution.
The mechanism of redistribution of income, wealth, realized by power, consists of three phases: accumulation - fund formation - distribution. Continually renewing, the phases provide in the economic aspect the reproduction of social assistance relations.
Accumulation involves the collection of funds through the formation of a mandatory system of taxes and fees or targeted taxes on social assistance. In the phase of fund formation, the funds are sent to special forms of power funds - the treasury, the budget and there the funds become power. Finally, the distribution phase involves the allocation of funds from the funds for the implementation of social assistance.
Therefore, social assistance in the economic aspect is distribution. The authorities do not have their own funds for social assistance and redistribute the funds forcibly taken from the society. At the same time, compulsory, compulsory way of formation of economic bases of the imperious help gives the chance to consider these bases as stable, stable.
The goal of power redistribution of income is to ensure social peace and public safety.
The subject of redistribution - the government establishes and legislatively fixes rules and norms of redistribution. They should be socially acceptable, reflect the interests and needs of society, the socio-cultural level and traditions.
In the historical period under review, power as an institution-subject of social assistance used a compulsory (mandatory) way of redistribution. Relations and relations of redistribution were of a vertical nature, realized indirectly through municipal, parish financial funds. The regulatory and legal basis for redistribution is state. Organizationally implemented redistributive functions of local government.Summarizing some results, it can be noted that in the nineteenth century, the European states in America developed a system of approaches and organizational mechanisms for helping needy citizens, enshrined in state legislation. It is based on the subdivision of the poor into categories. Need for "laziness and extravagance" society's help was not expected. They were subject to police sanctions and forced labor, imprisonment. The disabled poor should have been supported first of all in the family-related circle, and in case of its absence or insufficiency - within the local community. Assistance could be provided in specialized social institutions, as well as in the form of material benefits, benefits. The economic basis of power assistance - the state (municipal) treasury - was formed through taxes, levies, state obligations, which, as a rule, were characterized by a progressive character and territorial method of taxation.
We can highlight the main features of the system of powerful social assistance:
• legality. All relations of power assistance are regulated by law;
• Compulsory. Social assistance is posited and required by citizens by right;
• concentration on poverty. Social assistance is aimed at overcoming poverty, combating beggary;
• Locality - the organization of social support on a territorial basis;
• Municipal, local character. Social assistance was realized by power structures. The determining role in this activity belonged to the bodies of local self-government;
• the dominance of "closed" forms of assistance in specialized institutions; isolation in workhouses as the main form of assistance to the able-bodied poor, the fight against beggary. Since the XIX century. isolation is no longer an end in itself, but its elements are of an auxiliary nature. The institutions contain disabled citizens who need special types of social assistance, in accordance with the peculiarities of social pathologies;
• The economic basis of power social assistance - the means of state (municipal) budgets. The nature of the formation of economic bases of assistance is compulsory (taxes) and local (the object of taxation is the incomes of city residents, the parish).The emerging social and labor legislation acts as a form of social protection of the able-bodied, employed population against risks that worsen its social and labor situation; regulates various aspects of labor relations with the aim of securing the rights and interests of employees in market conditions.
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