Ethical basis of activity
Social work belongs to the category of phenomena. The phenomenon is treated as an unusual rare phenomenon, an exceptional fact. Social work combines professional and non-professional activities.
Professional activity is associated with training, special education. The unprofessional activity of a social worker consists in caring, attention, sympathy, mercy, etc.
The characteristics of social work determine the theoretical approaches to this phenomenon associated with behaviorism and the theory of social exchange.
Complex in United States transcription the word behaviorism means, in translation from English, behavior. Behavioral paradigm in social knowledge is associated with the study of human behavior under the influence of the environment.
Behavioral approaches are reinforced by the theory of social exchange, which studies social relations through the exchange of values on condition of balance and balance in the exchange. Exchange chains should ensure fair exchange.
Since social work is a purposeful activity to provide assistance and support to various categories of the population for the purpose of their normal social functioning, the task of overcoming asymmetric relations, the inequality between social workers and clients is paramount.
These theoretical foundations determine the ethical principles of social work. Ethics - in translation from Greek means - habit, wont, temper. On the one hand, ethics are moral beliefs, on the other - the science of morality, morality as part of public consciousness. This term was introduced by Aristotle, understanding under him the moral traits of a virtuous person. The main function of morality is normative, regulating. Moral principles permeate all social relationships.
Moral in Latin - behavior, customs, customs. Moral norms are assimilated in the process of socialization of the individual. Morality - a synonym for morality, but the language subtly maintains differences.
Moral is a social institution that ensures the adjustment of the relationship between the "I" and " and We & quot ;. Morality is a behavioral system associated with specific personality traits.
How do the concepts man and personality Each person is a person, but not every person is a person. In this relationship, the social and biological essence of man is hidden. A person is a representative of the animal world, a person is a person who has social traits that allow him to live in a society. Man as a person discovers his essence in the aggregate of social relations that form the society in which he lives and acts.
The concept of man reflects the common features inherent in the human race. It includes both biological and social characteristics. Man - the highest stage of development of biological evolution, an element of living nature, genetically related to other forms of life. On the one hand, biological, live in a person is represented by a bodily, physical structure - a genotype. The genotype includes: temperament, dynamics of mental processes and phenotype - bodily construction. On the other hand, a person is a subject of social life, which is made up of interacting people. The very term society - Western analogue of the word "society", comes from the Latin "socius", which means - friend, comrade, accomplice.
Man is an alloy of social and biological. Biosociality creates the integrity of man. The social grows out of the biological, it always preserves living, natural principles. The social is a qualitatively new condition of life, its regulation.
In a person, it is necessary to distinguish between live and animal & quot ;. The living is opposed by an inanimate, dead nature. An animal is something that is not reflected by consciousness, is not regulated by it, for example, instincts, reflexes. Social life resists the animal, but absorbs vital, living principles.
What features should a person have to be considered a person?
First of all, consciousness or reasonableness which allow a person to adequately perceive reality, generalize, synthesize common similar features, properties, abstract thoughts, draw logical conclusions.
The person consciously classifies himself to one or another community, realizes group interests, meaningfully joins the life of social communities and society as a whole. Consciousness allows a person to distinguish himself from society, groups, to recognize his own "I", his place in society, to assert independence of the individual, and uniqueness. Humiliated, oligophrenic can not in the full sense be individuals.
The most important facet of consciousness is the ability to social responsibility, ie. the ability to consciously foresee the result of their activities, an act in relation to the social environment and the whole society, as well as themselves.
Each person is an individual with unique features, social status and social roles. In the scientific literature, the following universal roles are noted, regardless of status: the consumer, the family man, the worker, the owner, the citizen.
The etymology of the word personality connects this concept with the social role. The Old Slavonic word "person", from which the term "person" is derived, meant a mask that was worn by buffoons to play a role.
The mechanism of moral, ethical impact on people's behavior has two aspects: the general moral and ethical culture of the population and the moral level of each individual, connected with the conscience of the individual. Conscience is internal self-control. The higher the self-control, the less external compulsion and vice versa.
Trifling care, rigid external control suppresses the personality, excludes freedom of choice and action, creativity and initiative.
The state of public morality is determined by the actual reality. Russia historically is experiencing an anomaly when the old social order collapsed, and the new one is just emerging. The growth of crime, corruption, amoralism, the absence of taboo, forbidden zones have a direct impact on the ethical culture of modern society. In these conditions, the role of social responsibility of the individual increases. Deviant temptations are overcome only by self-control, i.e. conscience.
The objective and subjective factors of the current state of United States society affect the professional activities of social workers. Gradually, the new principles of democratic governance through mechanisms of social selection, competitiveness, ensuring professional success due to the abilities of the worker come to replace the hypercentralization, the lack of publicity, the zones "outside criticism", and demagoguery. The deeper these principles are implemented in practice, the higher will be the moral and ethical level of social work and the depth of humanization of social relations.
The profession of a social worker is essentially creative. The ethical background of the creative personality is associated with the creativity of the specialist.
Creativity - from the English. creative - creative. The creative personality has a creative character, distinguished by the search and creation of a new one. The basis for developing the creative potential of a social worker's personality is the ability to express himself.
The qualities of the creative personality needed by a social worker:
- independence of judgments and judgments;
- the ability to focus on solving a problem;
- the ability to anticipate an imaginary situation;
- the desire for self-realization;
- susceptibility to the new;
- a critical attitude to yourself;
- a developed aesthetic sense.
The social worker needs to strive to develop positive thinking, which assumes such personal qualities as humanity, honesty, decency, conscience, humanity, justice, objectivity, compassion, willingness to help.
Social work makes very high demands on the employee, above all the ability to fulfill the goal, the ability to resist difficulties and own weaknesses in the character. In the book of modern sociologist G. Emerson "12 principles of productivity" the most important conditions of labor efficiency are considered, some of them can be directly related to the organization of social work.
1. Precisely set the goal for the employee.
2. Common sense (without nonsense).
3. Competent counseling.
4. Discipline for all.
5. A fair attitude to the staff.
6. Operative accurate accounting.
7. Dispatch control.
8. Exact rationing.
9. Fair compensation for productive work.
The efficiency of the social worker's work depends to a large extent on the observance of professional ethics. A social worker is obliged to provide social services to any client, regardless of his social status, race, gender, age, religious
accessories, etc. Obligatory properties must be mutual respect and trust with colleagues and customers.
The social worker must possess such qualities of ethical order as flexibility of mind, realism, developed intuition, foresight, will, endurance, adherence to principles, patience, efficiency, discipline, self-control.
The ethics of social work is related to the ability to correctly apply social sanctions, which can have a positive and negative character. Social sanctions relate to the moral and ethical climate in the work collectives of the social environment, on the level of which the quality of social services largely depends.
public approval - letters, bonuses, public gratitude
punishments of a legal and regulatory nature
friendly praise, compliments, benevolent arrangement
Informal: remarks, mockery, ridicule, malicious joke, disregard, rumors, slander, refusal to communicate
Ethical principles in social work are contrasted with the destructive style, they require a constructive style.
Destructive style is an escape from conflict; a requirement greater than the client can give; negative evaluation of people important to the client; joining others' attacks on the client.
Constructive style is a sincere, open attitude to the client; marginal correctness; attentive attitude to the client's problem; democratic style; the ability to adopt a different point of view; style of cooperation.
Unfortunately, social workers allow many ethical mistakes in working with clients. The most dangerous deviation from ethical norms is manipulation.
Manipulation is the concealment of true feelings, the desire to "throw dust in the eye". Manipulators are not born, they become to control others, to exercise control. Manipulation is the replacement of a true emotion with a fake one. Each person is a sample of bipolarity:
- active - passive;
- strong - weak
- independent - dependent;
- affectionate - aggressive;
- conservative - radical.
Opposing parties should not confront each other, it is necessary to achieve in the behavior of the predominance of the positive aspects of the character. The only right way is self-development through control over one's own behavior.
In detail, the problem of manipulation in social work is considered in the works of Eric Bern, Everett Shostrom, Jenny Graham Scott.
There are four types of manipulators: active, passive, competing, indifferent.
Active - "dog on top", role similar to "strict parent", "teachers", "boss", "senior sergeant". Always right because of his social status.
Passive - "the dog from below," the role of the child, helpless, ignorant.
Active thinks and works for the weak, his defeat is a victory for the strong.
Competing - "the dog is from above, then from below", all enemies, constant struggle with rivals, win at any cost. A mixture of active and passive types. Extremely unbalanced, actions are unpredictable.
Indifferent - "I do not give a damn about anything", avoiding responsibility, "I do not need your care", "leave me alone". Closed, embittered.
The reason for the manipulation is a conflict with oneself, associated with depressed feelings, inner anxiety, nervousness. Characteristic readiness for counter aggression.
Manipulators often break off contacts - arm overhand handle & quot ;, leave emotions for stock - "You have offended me last week", are vindictive, do not make a difference between feelings and facts, instead of resentment and pain often show anger.
Typical types of manipulator behavior:
Dictator - communicate only in the form of order, notation, negation.
Rag is the eternal sacrifice of a dictator, exaggerates his helplessness - spiritual blackmail.
The hooligan - all actions are associated with aggression, cruelty.
Judge - no one believes, is suspicious, condemns everyone.
The manipulator is opposed to the actualizer.
Actualizer - the master of his life, sincere, honest, whole person, deep consciousness of self-worth. Each person must kill the manipulator and strengthen the actualizer. An effective means of actualizing one's activity is the transfer of internal energy to useful creative activity corresponding to the abilities and interests of the individual. A passion for professional activity is the best remedy for manipulation. The actualizer can turn the most routine activity into joy.
For the actualizer are characterized by open feelings: love, compassion, resentment, fear, anger. For him, the ability to honestly express true feelings is characteristic.
Sincerity is evidence of mental health. If feelings are constantly pounded inside, there is a destruction of the psyche, depression. Unexpressed emotion is the loop around your neck & quot ;.
The Actualizer is always ready to actively participate in the life of another person and accept it as it is.
The law of ethical communication is the separation of man as a whole from a concrete action. Anyone can make a mistake. To judge is not a person, but only a concrete action. At the same time, it is impossible to mix in the relevant erroneous actions related to the case to a specific action.
Thus, the social worker is obliged to master the principles and methods of actualization, having learned to express his feelings both positive and negative, to determine the coincidence and divergence of opinions with the client, to master the maximum of receptions and means of assistance to the suffering.
Manipulation at the subjective level is certainly associated with social manipulation.
Social manipulation is a characteristic phenomenon of our life, it consists in the influence of political forces on the whole society and various social groups. Methods of mass manipulation: disinformation, deceptions, zombies, launching rumors, hiding information, etc.
The improvement of public life through the progressive development of all spheres of public life: economic, social and spiritual, overcoming the institutional crisis is the only way to strengthen morality, morality and ethical consciousness.
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