Evaluation of marxist theory of cultural class

'Marx believed that our society was at circumstances of continual discord between your working category and upper course, evaluate the Marxist theory of social course using Functionalism, Weberian, and postmodern ideas of course'.

Social Stratification is the way society places people into certain categories established upon something of hierarchy. This technique has sustained over generations, those who find themselves born into a far more prosperous family are believed to have more of any chance of acquiring better health and education, using a head start, over population, that remains in the lower part of prosperity. Inequality follows era to era.

Class system allocates a person by love-making, colour, or by cultural qualifications. Stratification is a form of meritocracy, how well one does pertains to how some may be compensated. Do we automatically need this form of department into day's modern culture, as today's population provides similar opportunities? Some sociologist insists even in the current society we need this division.

According to Marx assume that our history has always been a brief history of class have difficulties, this struggle they say came about by the end of the hunting and gathering modern culture as industry started to advance. Marxist theory is that that class have difficulties shows through historical stavey Feudalism and capitlism. Category is the merchandise of the setting of production of any society. The method of production is made up from the relationship between the means of production and that of social development. The means of development is that of landowners and equipment, [bourgeoisie] which raw materials and labour belong to the indegent the [proletariats].

The social relationship of Marxism identifies this as that of economics between abundant and poor. This theory is based purely after economics of wealth. The driving push in nearly most of world is the issue between the wealthy and the poor. [Marx &Angles 1970]

Marx has been accused to be a determinist and a reductionist. A lot of things aren't related simply on economics, his conception of the class system neglects to add the petty - bourgeoisie, those who own smaller businesses and only utilize themselves. He didn't foresee the advancements of living standards for most of culture or the impact of the middle class. He did not include countries such as Russia and China who might revolt and denounce communism. He did not foresee the fact that our society is a democratic one and that have the to equality and farness. Nor do he anticipate nor could he have done that western modern culture would turn into a very wealthy one.

Marx's perception on Marxism was not what he desired; he shows that capitalism is the most recent type of school and that it will be the last. Eventually he says it'll be replaced by way of a communist society where the means of development will be communally had. As the bourgeoisie use the superstructure of advertising and along with politics and education to suppress. The proletariats by creating incorrect class awareness the transmission to communism won't evolve until school consciousness builds up.

Weberianisms [Weber 1947] Utmost Weber's theory on school status considers this as separate but related way to obtain power which has distinct but related influences on people's life chances. He defines class in terms of market positions, in their positions and of their skills and skills he also recognises that the working school have a range of chances to better themselves. Webber's theory shows that a person's inequality comes from school inequality.

This theory is based upon someone's occupation and how high they can be, in general a higher occupation gains a higher social standing. He also recognises that it is possible to achieve a higher position via other routes such as, competition, gender, religion or through politics. He also shows that some position was associated with usage style in around artist clothes posh automobiles bigger properties. Unlike Marx, Webber recognises a three tier class structure

[1] class-economic relationship

[2] status-perceived status

[3] party-third aspect political electric power.

Webber defined sociable school into four clusters of profession.

[1] privileged [property & education]

[2] Petty bourgeoisies [self-employed & managers]

[3] White collar personnel &technicians [lwc]

[4] Manual employees [wc]

Webber did effect how school is operationalised [Goldthorpe range and the NS-SEC level] He states that the distinctions in status inhibits different classes banding along for a revolution as they have no common identity. In Webbers theory he places status above course.

Marx's theory on the inevitability of school discord determinant of inequality has some insight into Weber's theory as he states that class are monetary categories organised around things such as homes and businesses. He will indicate that it should recognise occupations skills as there's a chance to make life chances among the working and middle classes. Weber however did influence how school is operationalised in just as much as the Goldthorpe scales and the NS. SEC scales, he says that the distinctions in status prevent different classes banding along for a trend as they haven't any common identification. Weber puts status of groups above that of course status.

This is a census theory established upon each part is interrelated learning, resulting in equilibrium. Individuals can fulfil their rightful occupations matching to their education and skills. Functionalism thinks that we are in a distributed culture. Functionalism believes that is a fair and just way. Their theory argues that stratification and inequality equal an optimistic function for modern culture, and that stratification is a major contributor to your social order. Most of society must ensure that the most senior positions are filled up by those people who have the education and skills knowledge and efficiency to execute these rolls

Davis & Moore: some concepts of stratification [1945]

This theory started with observations that stratification exists in all individuals societies; therefore it is a general picture of individuals society, as much as religious beliefs and of criminal offenses. This they infer it must be efficient.

"A tool in which world ensures that the most crucial positions are conscientiously filled by the most competent persons"

Functionalist's theory is based on meritocracy which its function is

[1] Income established.

[2] Profession.

[3] High and low accomplishments.

[4] Education.

Functionalist says that people all hold the chance to climb the ladder, centered upon our successes. As this theory is based on rewards higher careers equal higher rewards, but it's been shown that not absolutely all jobs are founded after knowledge and labour extensive and the rewards are not just. Some would claim that gaining the excess education to fulfil many job criteria is an accomplishment and incentive in its personal. Job can be inherited or bought, education and skill is not questioned.

Functionalists seemed to have misplaced those who gain a higher position without necessarily having the qualifications or skills need to execute efficiently, as they have either inherited the position from a family member, or they have bought into that position. There are dysfunctions of stratification that contain been forgotten; these includes the elderly, the indegent [unemployed] and those who have impairment and health issues. Most of whom have the right to be recognized and included in modern culture. This theory appears to be in line with that of Marx's and Weber's theory and it benefits those who find themselves already at the top of the ladder and sets obstacles in the way of others.

Post - Modernists sociologists take the view that with the decline of our creation and anatomist building it is the mass media and culture that is currently our main monetary factor. As the media's coverage is worldwide so they form our marriage with society. [Baudrillard 1993] claims that for him the earth is incapable of truth, unable to see certainty from fiction.

Towler [1996] identifies two conditions that can be associated with postmodernism. He claims that it's a population that comes after after modern societies, which he says is currently information rich internationally and we now have many sub=organizations and ethnicities. His second concern is that it's a means of knowing the world which questions the type of real truth.

Strinatr [1992] Postmodernism works to come to conditions with a advertising -saturated society

Kaplan [1987] identifies pop and rock videos as types of post-modernist culture as they haven't any idea of narrative framework.

Paluski & Walters [1996] have argued that the course structure no longer exist as social change has evolved, such as globalisation. This they say means that course divisions have now become position divisions.

Post-modernist theory thinks in a interpersonal order in which the importance and the effectiveness of press and of culture govern and form forms of interpersonal relationships. They claim that media plays such an important role in our society that we are controlled with what we see and listen to; we clothe ourselves consequently and purchase homes advised by marketing interpretation.

This theory bases its ideas on the process that society can no long be truthful, which are unable to notify the difference of certainty from fiction. We as societies are now conditioned to the point of doing the particular media say will be the norm. They state that capitalist or professional societies have reached a new stage inside our development that people have transferred from being a modernist population to a post-modernist culture. [Featherstone1991]. As this is a relatively new theory there is not much information to really come to a established conclusion.

This theory is relatively unfair and bias towards the abundant, but because of phony class consciousness taught young and the press it is not looked upon as unfair. The low end of contemporary society is taught that capitalism is a good and natural cause to follow. This theory is based on a two tier system and capitalist so it is know as a turmoil theory, as it causes conflicts between get better at and slave relationship. This theory produces unequal cultural relations and that makes it also an exploited action. This theory will not distinguish between gender, ethnicity, sexuality and get older. The one positive thing that did result from Marx was his theory was the communist trend of countries like Russia and China, it has been said that Carl Marx acquired a bigger effect on people than that of Christ or Mohammed.

Was Marx's theory of per petulant turmoil between the proletariats and of the bourgeoisies realistic? Was he as accused, a determinist and a reductionist? Is school stratification exercised simply by economics? This Assignment has looked at four different opinions of school stratification and their ideas. Studies show that not absolutely all class is based upon wealth, and yes conflict does occur but not to the degree of Marx's theory. Whether he was a reductionist or a determinist is not really this writers place to comment. However feels that Marx was only looking through tunnelled perspective, as he did not recognise that even the poor have privileges, have a place in society. The poor's source into modern culture is little decided but they have to be considered as they have to live, need to consume, have to be looked after.

Max Weber will not include the unemployed or older people; he does however help substantially for the new scales of course allowing for the working category to raised themselves. Weber feels that as lower category has no identity with the center class they will not come together for revolt, he was blinded to the actual fact that population is individuals and our first instinct is to survive, and if that means a coming mutually of different classes for the cause, they would.

Functionalism recognises that the working category are as valuable as the middle class enabling furthering and growing their skills. Their theory omits individuals who inherit or buy or use politics to gain wealthy jobs, and again the old and infirm are overlooked out.

Post-modernist view is that we are mere machines and take action dress and consume what the marketing determines is right because of this society. That people have grown to be so overwhelmed by music, Television set and media that we cannot think for ourselves. Have we really become so besotted with manufactured items we can no longer tell what's truth or lays? Can we no more tell the difference between make believe and reality. There is absolutely no solid evidence to show that all homeowners have a tv set computer or radio.

Into days society where we have humanity and respect for others will class stratification come into it. Yes we desire a tiered structure to enforce calmness and law often the earth would polarise and collapse. Will economic wealth make you better person? Are the elderly and infirm the dregs of contemporary society?

However Post modernist might just be right in the current contemporary society of no class stratification, as people tend to place riches on branded items, the poorest of culture could perceive to be wealthier that their class standing by wearing a set of branded instructors. Marx maybe right in expressing society needs to be a capitalist one. Functionalists seem bias towards the prosperity along with Marx and Weber. Whoever may be right or wrong, to have the ability to improve on life chances generally it's important to have a class structure.

Sharon Finch Sociology 22nd10 2010


[Anon](2010)Wikipedia [online]. Available from: http://en. wikipedia. org/Religious_stratification[Accessed:23rdjanuary2010]

[Anon](2010)moodle[online]from:http://moodle. northamptoncollege. ac. uk/mod/resource/view. php?id=16685

Allen, C. (2010) lecturers records post modernist [Seen on 21october 2010]

Allen, C. (2010) lecturers records Weberian [Accessed on 13th October 2010]

Allen, C. (2010) lecturers records Marxism: structural turmoil theory [Seen on 13th Oct 2010]

Allen, C. (2010) lecturers records Functionalism [Accessed on 19th Oct 2010]

Moore, S. Et, al. 2002sociology for A2. London: Harper Collins.

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