Evolution of the theory of modernization in the 70-80's. XX century: concepts of synthetic and structural modernizationThe failure of the theories of Westernization forced researchers to recognize the enormous institutional diversity of various modern and modernizing societies and the importance of established socio-cultural types as the basis for the stability and independence of society, and the important role of value-semantic factors in the regulation of both political and economic life. >
In the new paradigm, the process of world development no longer looks determined solely by the technological and economic process, and modernization is no longer a one-line and monocentric, but a polymorphic and allowing considerable variability in the structure and pace of its dynamics. The result of a critical rethinking of the concept of modernization was its interpretation not as a linear-universal movement toward an outwardly defined goal, but as an internally contradictory and multifaceted process.
Modernization - in the modern sense - is the resolution of the contradictions between a) endogenous values, norms, institutions and "world civilization", entry into which is one of the main goals of all transformations; b) Western values and norms, borrowed by institutions and their own sociocultural heritage, in relation to which Westernization acts as a destroyer; c) the imperative (both external and internal) of changes that are a condition for full-fledged entry into established world ties, and the need to maintain the stability and integrity of society.
The resolution of these contradictions is possible on the paths, firstly, understanding modernization as a movement towards different goals in different spheres of society; second, the recognition of the role of an original culture in the life of society.
There is a renewal of the conceptual apparatus of the theory: instead of the concepts modernization and development scientists suggest using the terms "transformation", "industrialization", and instead of acquiring the negative meaning of the concept "traditionality" - endogenicity (a term that emphasizes linking development to own values inherent in the culture and institutions), and "identity" (a term that emphasizes the preservation of the original essence of society, its identity to itself for all changes). To denote the process of perception by non-Western cultures of Western values and institutions instead of borrowing (implying copying), we introduce the concepts Orientation & quot ;, de-ernerization & quot ;, adaptation & quot ;, meaning the transformation of borrowed values in a new cultural environment, filling them with a new, fundamentally different content. In the domestic literature, the concept of "identity", which includes the whole spectrum of the unique uniqueness of each of the non-Western societies, has become widely used.
Criticism of radical Westernization, gaining strength throughout the 60-70's. XX in "led to the rejection of its absolutization. There was an awareness of the fact that "the destruction of the old does not necessarily contribute to the emergence of a new one and is accompanied by it." Often the breakdown of traditional ties and the loss of traditional values leads to disintegration, disorientation and chaos, and not to the establishment of new values and institutions. " Researchers have recognized that traditional values, norms and institutions do not always have a deterrent effect on modernization processes, but often play a positive role (for example, in England and Japan, monarchical symbols and the ethics of public ministry have played a mobilizing role). Finally, the crisis of the universalist concept of modernization has convinced theorists that Western values are not always and not always suitable for non-Western civilizations, to whom solidarity and justice in the traditional sense are more organic than rationality and freedom of competition.
The updated concept of modernization is based on the following provisions:
1) the importance of the established socio-cultural types as the basis for the stability and independence of society;
2) the stability of value-semantic factors in the regulation of both political and economic life;
3) the greater variability of institutional, symbolic, ideological interpretations that different societies and civilizations give to real modernization processes.
The updated model of the world development process looks no longer unilinear and monocentric, as in the westernization model, but polycentric and allowing considerable variability in the forms and directions of its dynamics. The real answer to the call modernization is determined, according to S. Eisenstadt, by a whole set of specific characteristics of each individual society, including its civilizational foundations: basic ideas about the cosmic and social order and their correlation, social and cultural system, basic notions of basic socio-cultural values (such such as equality, hierarchy, innovation, etc.).
The current stage in the formation of the concept of world development reflects the concept of synthetic modernization . It is called synthetic because it considers the success of modernization possible only with the organic synthesis of modern rational and technological values and institutions with traditional, original foundations of non-Western societies and considers the consideration of socio-cultural specifics as the most important initial premise of modern transformations. One of the basic premises of this concept is that the transition to modern forms of socio-economic and cultural existence must be carried out with self-reliance ( self-reliance ).Modernization is conceived at the present stage of the concept's formation as a complex process, which implies the structural differentiation of the socio-cultural system and the formation of new institutions, norms, forms of communication, symbols and values, not on the basis of negation traditional, and its organic inclusion in the processes of modernization, the use of its mobilization and integration potential. In this regard, the new discovery ( rediscovery ) of traditional cultures that acquire a new meaning and become the legitimizing basis for transformations.
The general conclusion of S. Eisenstadt on the modernization of non-Western societies is that it is implemented on the basis of social, cultural, religious, political pluralism, the simultaneous action of various factors and trends, the collision of the processes of rejection of the new, adaptation to it, its unconditional acceptance abandonment of their own heritage, or, on the contrary, the absolutization of the latter, etc.
The structural paradigm of modernization reflects the fact that modern activities and value orientations occupy only certain spheres of social life - modern sectors in the economy and finance, certain spheres of legal regulation and management, political system, science and technology etc. equipped. Behind traditional spheres there remain regulation in the spheres of interpersonal relations and informal communication, family, maintenance of integrity and spiritual unity of a society, the decision of world outlook, existential problems.An integral part of the research of ways and forms of synthesis and structuring of traditional and modern values is the identification in the endogenous spiritual heritage of those elements that can most successfully contribute to an organic transition to modernity: to determine the goals, needs and strategic directions of the development of original societies, to ensure the legitimacy of new institutions and forms of activity, to facilitate the adaptation to them of the traditional individual. The opposition of traditional and modern industrial-capitalist societies is viewed not as a rigid antithesis, but as a mobile ratio, conditioned by the dynamism of the traditional principle, its ability to change and adapt to modern conditions.
A well-known American Indologist, M. Singer , one of the most consistent spokesmen of this position, on the basis of sociological studies of the value orientations of Madras entrepreneurs, argues that traditional Indian religion and social institutions are compatible with the modern development of the economy and successfully adapt to ensure its further progress. Singer came to the conclusion that Hinduism can be used as a good spiritual basis for industrial development, if we take his philosophical and ethical teaching. Hindu traditional institutions also successfully adapt to new conditions and become original forms of functioning of bourgeois institutions and norms. The caste system is successfully combined with modern forms of hierarchy based on qualifications, education, etc., while at the same time ensuring the solidarity and identification of the individual at the personal level of communication. The same applies to the traditional big family, which, adapting to modern social and cultural relations and functioning in the conditions of industrial production, is still not destroyed and is not an obstacle to economic and social development.
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