Expansion of the normative functions of international organizations after the Second World War
In the ILO Philadelphia Declaration of 1944, the goals and objectives of this organization were significantly expanded. The Declaration marked the beginning of a new stage in the work of the ILO and other international organizations for the benefit of workers around the world. It contained provisions that were then included in the UN Charter and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948. It reaffirmed that "poverty in any place is a threat to the general welfare."
All people, regardless of race, faith or gender, "have the right to exercise their material well-being and spiritual development in conditions of freedom and dignity, economic stability and equal opportunities; the achievement of the conditions under which this is possible, should be the main goal of national and international policy. "
In Sec. The 3 Philadelphia Declaration outlined the ILO's 10 main objectives aimed at achieving social progress, which are still relevant. Among them:
- full employment;
- improving the standard of living;
- job security;
- fair pay terms;
- the development of collective bargaining;
- social security of employees;
- labor protection;
- protection of the well-being of children and mothers;
- providing the necessary food and shelter;
- creation of equal opportunities in the field of general and professional education.
In 1944, the 26th session of the ILO adopted several important recommendations - No. 67 on income security, No. 68 on the social security of persons from the armed forces, No. 69 on medical care, etc.
In 1946, the ILO became one of the largest UN organizations and the first specialized organization. This event certainly influenced the contents of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948. The Declaration establishes the right to take the necessary measures to maintain human dignity and its social security. Pei says that everyone has the right to a standard of living (including food, clothing, housing, medical care and social services) that is necessary to maintain the well-being of himself and his family, as well as the right to security in cases of illness, unemployment , disability, widowhood, the onset of old age or other loss of livelihood for objective reasons.
The provisions of the Declaration served as a guideline and basis for the development of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights of 1966. The CCP participating in the Covenant recognizes the right of everyone to social security, including social insurance, and to a decent standard of living.
The huge role in the development of national social security systems after the Second World War was played by the establishment in the ILO Convention No. 102 (1952) of the minimum standards of social security. This Convention has laid the international base for the domestic legislation of many countries of the world.
Since 1964, the ILO has been constantly working on the revision of obsolete conventions, bringing them in line with modern requirements. Thus, pre-war conventions were replaced by Convention No. 121 (1964) and Recommendation No. 121 (1964) on Injuries Benefits. In 1967, a single Convention No. 128 was adopted on old-age, disability and survivor benefits in lieu of the previous six conventions of 1933, as well as Recommendation No. 131. Convention No. 130 (1969) on Medical Care and Sickness Benefits replaced Convention No. 24 (1927).
Considerable attention in international treaties is paid to the social security of migrant workers. This issue is addressed in particular to ILO Conventions No. 118 (1962) and No. 157 (1982).
If the First World War led to the creation of the ILO, the Second World War helped convene the European Congress in May 1948 in The Hague, where ideas were voiced about freedom of movement, exchange of opinions and goods in a single Europe, the adoption of the Convention on Rights and the establishment of the European Court of Human Rights. The result of the work of the Congress was the adoption on May 5, 1949 of the Statute of the Council of Europe (CoE). Today the CoE is one of the most representative regional organizations, which includes 47 states, including Russia (since 1996).
The governing bodies of the Council of Europe are the Parliamentary Assembly (PACE), which includes members of the parliaments of the CE member states in accordance with the established quota, and the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, consisting of the Ministers for Foreign Affairs of the member countries of the Council of Europe. The current work of the Council is the responsibility of the Secretariat. The CE headquarters is in Strasbourg.
To date, the Council of Europe has adopted more than 150 conventions in the field of culture, science, education, labor, social security, environmental protection, etc.
From the first days of its creation, the Council of Europe began active work to coordinate and harmonize legislation on social security of member states. In 1953, three temporary agreements on social security were signed, as well as the European Convention on Social and Medical Assistance. This is the only multilateral convention on state social assistance. It was ratified by 16 member states of the Council of Europe.
Another major international treaty of the Council of Europe is the European Social Charter, adopted in 1961 and revised in 1996. In addition, the Council of Europe has initiated an initiative aimed at achieving higher minimum standards of social security than those enshrined in the Convention ILO No. 102 (1952). To this end, was developed and in 1964 the European Code of Social Security was adopted (in 1990 it was revised).
In the treaties on the European Union (the Maastricht Treaty of 1992 and the Amsterdam Treaty of 1997), social progress in the member states and their social convergence are seen as one of the main objectives of the EU.
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